Asia Minor - · A peninsula in western Asia located between the Black
and Mediterranean seas. Asia Minor was Alexander's first objective, though
he eventually sought to conquer much more territory.
City-state - · A city usually in Greece that possessed its own sovereignty, though
it could be subject to a broader authority, as in the case of the
Great King - · The ruler of Persia.
Hellenic League - · The league first established by Philip that united
the Greek city-states.
Hegemon - · Term for a leader, specifically of the Hellenic League.
Satrap - · Term for a ruler of a province in Asia.
A close adviser to Alexander from the beginning, who served as European
Viceroy while Alexander was away on campaigns. Ideological differences
ultimately arose between Antipater and Alexander, as Antipater disapproved
of Alexander's treatment of Persia. It is likely that Alexander
was planning to have Antipater assassinated, but died before he
could follow through.
tutor from the age of thirteen to sixteen. Aristotle taught Alexander
formal subjects such as poetry and rhetoric, while also instilling
the belief that all non-Greeks were barbarians and fit to be slaves.
Nephew of Aristotle and official historian of the Persian expedition.
Callisthenes died a martyr because he refused to submit to the
of Persia who fought and lost to Alexander. Darius was deposed and
killed by conspirators before Alexander could capture him in battle.
- Alexander's mother. A headstrong figure, Olympias convinced
Alexander of his destined greatness and was his closest adviser
early on. She may have played a role in his father's death, as
her son's succession was her most important ambition.
A loyal and powerful general who served under Philip. Parmenion
became Alexander's second officer in command. However, when his
services were no longer required on the expedition, Alexander saw
fit to dispose of him and his son before their influence could grow
- Father of Alexander and King of Macedonia. Philip
II and Alexander had their difficulties when doubts arose over
the latter's status as heir. Philip would be assassinated before
alternatives could be established, and Alexander may have played
a role in his death.
of the major rulers of India during Alexander's time. Porus faced
Alexander and lost, but was allowed to maintain his kingdom.
of Alexander's most faithful friends and most useful generals. Ptolemy
later claimed Egypt after Alexander's death and established a dynasty
of Alexander's most formidable opponents. Spitamenes continued to
raise trouble in the Far East after the death of Darius and even
defeated a regiment of Alexander's in a battle.
Chaeronea - Philip's monumental victory in 338 B.C. over the combined forces
of Athens and Thebes. Alexander played a vital role in defeating
the Sacred Band, an elite group of Theban soldiers.
Gaugamela - The second defeat of Darius in 331 B.C.
Granicus - The first battle between Alexander and the Persians,
which took place in 333 B.C.
Issus - Alexander's first meeting with Darius in 332 B.C. He
defeated the Great King soundly despite poor prospects, for the
Persians had surprised Alexander with great positioning.