A Farmer Refuted - · Hamilton published this essay as a follow-up to his
A Full Vindication of the Measures of the Congress to defend the
Continental Congress in Philadelphia from an anonymous essay signed
by "A. Westchester Farmer."
A Full Vindication of the Measures of the Congress - · Hamilton wrote A Full Vindication of the Measures
of the CongressIn Answer to A.W. Farmer in 1774 to defend
the American delegates in Philadelphia from the charges of the unknown
author "A.W. Farmer". "Farmer" attacked the men in Philadelphia
for their willingness to threaten Great Britain with economic sanctions.
The following year, Hamilton wrote a follow-up to this essay entitled
A Farmer Refuted.
on the Public Credit - · Hamilton wrote two Reports on the Public Credit while
serving as Secretary of the Treasury. In these reports, Hamilton
argued that the United States Government should assume the debts
of all the states, and pay interest on the debts owed to the nation's creditors.
Anti-Federalist - · The Anti-Federalists were those in the government who
did not favor a strong national government and wanted to see more power
go to individual states. Thomas Jefferson and George Clinton were
among the most prominent Anti- Federalists.
Articles of Confederation - · The Articles of Confederation was
the first constitution of the people of the United States. It established
a confederation of sovereign states and a national Congress comprised
of representatives from each state. It failed to outline a strong central
government, a defect that prompted Alexander Hamilton to call for
another convention to amend them.
College of New Jersey - · The College of New Jersey, now known as Princeton University, was
one of the most distinguished colleges in the American colonies
in the 1700s. With the recommendation of the Reverend Hugh Knox,
Hamilton was interviewed by the school's president, John Witherspoon.
When Witherspoon refused to admit Hamilton as a Special Student,
Hamilton decided not to attend the college.
Constitution - · The Constitution of the United States of America is
the document that established the current American system of government.
It was drafted to correct the mistakes in the previous Articles
Farewell Address - · Alexander Hamilton helped George Washington write his Farewell
Address to the Union in 1796. Many of the passages in the speech
have a distinctly Hamiltonian flair.
Federalist - · The Federalists were those who favored a strong national government
over a union of strong state governments. They believed that a
strong central government was the only method to ensure the stability
of the Union. Hamilton was an ardent Federalist.
Federalist Papers - · The Federalist Papers were written
by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay to convince
the American people to ratify the Constitution. Their arguments
were extremely persuasive, and the collected essays are regarded
as one of the most valuable works on American political philosophy.
King's College - · Hamilton attended King's College as a special student
from 1774 through 1776. The university later changed its name to Columbia
Interpretation - · Alexander Hamilton and his followers favored a loose interpretation
of the Constitution, which meant they believed that the document
permitted everything that it did not expressly forbid. This contrasted
sharply with Thomas Jefferson's strict interpretation.
Mint Act - · Hamilton succeeded in convincing Congress to pass the
Mint Act of 1791 to establish a single national currency.
- · Alexander Hamilton convinced President George Washington
to issue a Neutrality Proclamation in 1793 that announced that
the United States would not participate in the Napoleonic
On the Subject of Manufactures - · As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton wrote a report
entitled On the Subject of Manufactures in an
attempt to convince Congress that manufacturing, and not agriculture,
was the future of the nation's economy.
Practical Proceedings in the Supreme Court of New
York - · Hamilton wrote his Practical Proceedings in
the Supreme Court of New York in 1882 to help him prepare
for his bar exam. The work was used for several decades after its
original publication date as the standard text on New York law.
St. Croix - · St. Croix is an island in the Caribbean Sea that is
now a part of the United States Virgin Islands. Alexander Hamilton
spent most of his boyhood years on this island.
Interpretation - · Thomas Jefferson favored a strict interpretation of
the Constitution, which he interpreted as forbidding everything
it did not expressly permit. In contrast, Hamilton favored a loose interpretation.
Tory - · Tories were those Americans who remained loyal to the
British during the Revolutionary War. Those who remained in the United
States after the war's end were criticized heavily for their disloyalty
to the Union.
Adams served as the first Vice President of the United States under
George Washington from 1790 to 1796, and later became the second
President of the United States from 1796 to 1800. He and Alexander Hamilton
were bitter enemies.
- Benedict Arnold was an American military officer who
defected to the British Army during the Revolutionary War. Hamilton
tried to capture Arnold in New York, arriving minutes after Arnold
Burr served as Thomas Jefferson's Vice President from 1800 to 1804.
Hamilton loathed Burr because he believed Burr was involved in
politics only to benefit himself. When Burr ran for Governor of New
York in 1804, Hamilton wrote a series of essays denouncing Burr.
Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel. The two men fought on July
11, 1804, and Burr shot Hamilton once. Hamilton died from his wounds
the next day.
Clinton served for many years as the Governor of New York. He was
Hamilton's primary political rival for many years.
- Nicholas Cruger was a merchant on the island of St.
Croix. The young Alexander Hamilton served as Cruger's clerk for
a time during his teenage years. When Cruger realized that Hamilton
possessed a keen intellect, he encouraged Alexander to attend college and
receive an education.
- Rachel Fawcett was Alexander Hamilton's mother. She
left her first husband, the abusive John Lavien, and later met
James Hamilton, Alexander Hamilton's father. Rachel died in 1768
Genet was the French ambassador to the United States in the 1790s.
Genet attempted to recruit American soldiers to fight for France
in their wars in Europe and used American ports to launch French naval
attacks against the British. Hamilton eventually convinced George
Washington to expel Genet, but Genet feared reprisals in his own
country and requested to remain in the United States.
- James Hamilton, St. was Alexander Hamilton's
father. He left Rachel and Alexander in 1766 after discovering
that Rachel was still technically married to her husband John Lavien.
Although Alexander never saw his father again, the two continued
to write until James, Sr.'s death.
- Both Alexander Hamilton's first and last sons were
named Philip. Hamilton's first son was shot to death in a duel
at King's College at the age of nineteen. In honor of his firstborn,
Hamilton christened his last child Philip as well.
Jay helped Alexander Hamilton write the Federalist Papers to convince
the American people to ratify the new Constitution. In 1794, Jay
traveled to Great Britain to represent the United States in settling several
disputes between the two nations. Jay was also involved in the
XYZ Affair when he went to Paris in 1797 to discuss terms of peace
with France. He later became the first Chief Justice of the Supreme
- Thomas Jefferson was Alexander Hamilton's chief political
rival when they both served in George Washington's cabinet. They
disagreed on how the Constitution should be interpreted. Jefferson
later served as the third President of the United States.
Reverend Hugh Knox
- The Reverend Hugh Knox was a Presbyterian minister
on the island of St. Croix in the Caribbean. Knox and Nicholas
Cruger encouraged Hamilton to attend college in the American colonies, and
Knox even arranged an interview for Hamilton at the College of
New Jersey, now known as Princeton University.
Lansing, along with Robert Yates, worked against Hamilton at the
Lavien was Rachel Fawcett's first and only husband. Together they
had one son named Peter. When Rachel died, Lavien took all of her
money and gave it to Peter without leaving any to help support
the young Alexander Hamilton.
testified at the court-martial of American General Charles Lee for
having disobeyed several of George Washington's direct military
commands at the Battle of Monmouth. Hamilton's testimony helped convict
Madison helped Hamilton and John Jay author the Federalist Papers.
He also served as Thomas Jefferson's Secretary of State and was
later elected the fourth President of the United States.
Monroe confronted Hamilton in 1792 with rumors of Hamilton's affair
with Maria Reynolds. Hamilton convinced Monroe to keep the affair
quite, but Monroe broke his word in 1797, forcing Hamilton to issue
a public apology. Monroe served as a prominent member of Congress
before eventually becoming the fifth President of the United States.
Hamilton had an affair with Maria Reynolds in 1791 and 1792. The
affair was made public by James Monroe in 1797.
- Hamilton married Betsey
Schuyler, the daughter of a prominent American general, in 1780. The
couple had eight children altogether.
Troup attended King's College with Hamilton. The two served together
in the King's College volunteer militia and Troup later helped Hamilton
prepare to become a lawyer in New York City.
- George Washington served as the commander-in-chief
of the United States Army and Navy during the Revolutionary War.
Washington later served as the first President of the United States.
Hamilton and Washington were close friends, and Washington often relied
upon Hamilton's wisdom and judgment.
- John Witherspoon was the president of the College
of New Jersey when Hamilton applied to the school in the 1770s.
In 1776, Witherspoon also signed the Declaration of Independence.
Yates helped John Lansing derail Hamilton's influence at the Philadelphia
Battle of Monmouth - Hamilton led a charge at the Battle of Monmouth. Although
he was not injured, Hamilton had his horse shot out from under him
during the attack.
Battle of Princeton - Hamilton participated in the Battle of Princeton in 1777
as an artillery captain.
Battle of Yorktown - Hamilton achieved his dream for glory when he led a charge
of 400 men against the British at the Battle of Yorktown in 1781.
Lexington and Concord - The Battle at Lexington and Concord was the first major skirmish
in the Revolutionary War against Great Britain.
Philadelphia Convention - The Philadelphia Convention was a conference originally
held to amend the Articles of Confederation. Hamilton called the delegates
from each state to the convention after the Annapolis Convention
Rutgers v. Waddington - Rutgers v. Waddington was one of Hamilton's
biggest cases as a New York attorney. Although Hamilton lost the
case, the judge agreed with his argument that the national government
has authority over the state governments.
Shay's Rebellion - Daniel Shays, along with other farmers in western Massachusetts,
rebelled against the U.S. Government under the Articles of Confederation.
Although Shays' rebellion did not seriously threaten the Union,
it prompted a revision of the inadequate Articles.
Valley Forge - Hamilton stayed with George Washington and the Continental Army
during the bitter winter of 1777 and 1778 at Valley Forge.
Whiskey Rebellion - When depressed farmers in western Pennsylvania threatened
to march on Philadelphia and possibly secede from the Union, Alexander
Hamilton convinced George Washington to give him command of a task
force of 15,000 troops to fight the rebels. When the insurgents
in the Whiskey Rebellion saw Hamilton and his men, they promptly
ended their revolt.
XYZ Affair - The XYZ Affair occurred in 1797 when John Jay and two
other diplomats went to Paris to negotiate a peace treaty between
the United States and France. Three unnamed French diplomats demanded
a bribe of $250,000 simply to receive the American delegates. The
XYZ Affair greatly angered the American people.