Abolitionism - · Abolitionism was a radical movement to end slavery
completely in the United States. It grew into a distinctly northern
campaign by the 1830s, taking special hold in New England, where prominent
writers and politicians such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, William Lloyd
Garrison and Charles Sumner led the rally cries.
Anaconda Plan - · Proposed by General Winfield Scott in the opening
stages of the Civil War, the Anaconda Plan was designed to constrain
the Confederate military effort in a snake-like vise by controlling
the Mississippi River and enforcing an effective blockade of southern
port cities on the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Such an
approach was intended to reduce land operations and hence casualties
to a minimum. Although Lincoln ultimately chose not to foreground
the Anaconda Plan, it nevertheless played a crucial role in the
Aristocracy - · An aristocracy is a class of people that rules in
perpetuity and assumes the trappings of nobility. Though seemingly
inimical to the notion of democracy, an aristocracy flourished
in the southern states well through the Civil War, making the Confederate
cause a sympathetic one to the old world aristocracies of Europe.
Border States - · The border states were a bloc of states that retained
the practice of slavery while remaining loyal to the Union. These
states included Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri. They played
a large strategic role in the Civil War, as sentiments over slavery
and union were divided in these areas. Although poised to secede
at times, the border states stayed faithful despite strict federal
controls and war-torn conditions.
Carpetbagger - · A carpetbagger was a northerner who went south during reconstruction
to insure that the policies of the federal government would be
properly administered in the former Confederate states—or simply
to profit financially and politically from his or her position.
The term survives today, applying to a politician who seeks office
in unfamiliar territory.
Colonization - · In this case, colonization signifies the plan initially
proposed by Henry Clay in which freed slaves would be federally compensated
in return for relocating to countries such as Haiti and Liberia.
This scheme was intended to diminish racial hostilities in the
United States by gradually reducing the black population. Lincoln
supported colonization well into his presidency, though he eventually
had second thoughts about the honorableness of such an approach.
Confederate States of America (the Confederacy) - · Organized after a group of southern states seceded
from the Union, the Confederate States of America wished to establish themselves
as an independent nation, and fought for this right during the
Civil War. Led by President Jefferson Davis, the Confederates
were plagued by loose organization and low munitions. In addition,
they lacked the support of the international community due to their
continuing reliance on slavery. Four years after organizing, this
association of eleven states fell to defeat, and gradually joined
the United States again.
Conscription Act - · This controversial draft law, passed in the Spring
of 1863, provided for the impressment of all able-bodied young
men in the service of the Union Army. A clause that allowed for
a "rich man's exemption" by payment of a fee or recruitment of
a substitute provoked substantial fury, and led to riots in New York
City that same summer. Ultimately, the Conscription Act was ineffective,
and Lincoln turned to more unashamedly mercenary means to keep the
Constitutional Union - · The Constitutional Union Party was a makeshift party
formed in time for the election of 1860. Earning its primary support
in the border states, the Constitutional Unionists wished to preserve
the Union by advancing a moderate platform that reconciled northern
and southern interests. Their ticket, composed of John Bell for
President and Edward Everett for Vice President, carried a handful
of states in the electoral college, but finished well behind the
pace set by Lincoln in the north and Breckenridge in the South.
Copperheads - · The Copperheads, also known as Peace Democrats, formed
the fiercest opposition to Lincoln in the Union. Many suspected certain
Copperheads, including Horatio Seymour and Clement Vallandigham,
of sympathizing or even collaborating with the Confederates.
Democrat - · The Democrats rose to power as the nation's premier
political party under the leadership of Andrew Jackson. The Democrats were
devoted to states' rights, and strongly opposed the establishment
of a national bank. In the mid- nineteenth century, the party became
increasingly divided over the question of slavery, eventually splitting
into a northern and southern branch before the election of 1860.
During Lincoln's presidency, the party was further divided within
the Union, splitting into War Democrats, who supported the Union's
military effort, and Peace Democrats, or Copperheads, who opposed
Emancipation Proclamation - · The Emancipation Proclamation, officially issued
by Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freed all slaves in the insurgent
portions of the Confederate States of America. The document did
not apply to Confederate areas under Union control or to the border
states. In practical terms, the Emancipation Proclamation was
virtually unenforceable, but it set the tide of antislavery rhetoric
and moral integrity squarely behind the Union. Eventually, this would
sweep the Union to victory and prepare the country for the groundbreaking
Fifth Amendment - · The Fifth Amendment, which states that "no person
may be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process
of law," was cited by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney in his landmark Dred Scott decision.
By declaring that slaves were not citizens, Taney concluded that
the slave's right to liberty was less important than the slaveowner's
right to property.
Fort Sumter - · A key federal holding in Charleston Harbor, South
Carolina, Fort Sumter became crucial when Lincoln decided to send reinforcements
in against the wishes of South Carolina. A Confederate force led
by General Pierre Beauregard led the bombardment of the Union-held
fort, which eventually surrendered to the onslaught. With this,
the Civil War had begun.
Freedman's Bureau - · Set up by the federal government during reconstruction,
the Freedman's Bureau was an ambitious attempt to improve the education
and employment prospects of blacks in the hostile south. The main
achievement of the Freedman's Bureau came in the form of the thousands
of schools it established and maintained for black children.
Freeport Doctrine - · The Freeport Doctrine, advanced by Stephen Douglas
during the second Lincoln-Douglas debate, held that local authorities reserved
the right to enforce federal jurisdiction as it saw fit. This
extreme stance in support of nullification eventually undermined
Douglas's political credibility, rendering him a martyr to his
own cause of popular sovereignty.
Free-Soil - · The term "free-soil" came to apply to a movement
that believed in containing the spread of slavery. More moderate
than many virulent abolitionists, free-soilers were primarily dedicated
to preserving the line of demarcation arrived at in the Missouri Compromise.
Later, as regional tensions grew, many free-soilers took up the
cause of abolitionism.
Fugitive Slave Law - · Fugitive slave laws became necessary after the growth
of the underground railroad, a system of safe havens, which allowed slaves
to flee north to freedom, often crossing the border into Canada.
A series of fugitive slave laws passed in the mid-nineteenth century
provided for the speedy return of any runaway slave caught in a
free state. Such measures were generally enacted and enforced in
the north as a way of compromise with the southern states over
related matters involving slavery.
Gerrymandering - · Gerrymandering is a system of drawing up electoral
districts irregularly in order to disproportionately benefit a
specific party or special interest group. This term was coined
after its first practitioner, Elbridge Gerry, governor of Massachusetts
and Vice President under James Madison.
Gold Standard - · The gold standard is an economic principle by which
a basic unit of currency is equivalent in amount to and can be
exchanged for a certain amount of gold. Greenbacks were a volatile
currency because they were not backed by the gold standard.
Greenbacks - · Greenbacks were the first national banknotes issued
by the United States government, issued under the authority of Secretary
of Treasury Chase. These notes, not backed by the gold standard,
were first released in order to help finance the growing costs
of the Civil War.
Habeas Corpus - · Literally meaning "we have the body," habeas corpus
is a writ required by the Constitution as proof of reasonable suspicion
in order to authorize a search or seizure. During the Civil War, Lincoln
controversially suspended the writ of habeas corpus.
Homestead Act - · The Homestead Act, signed in 1862, offered 160 acres
of free land to any citizen willing to farm and settle it for five
years. This legislation greatly facilitated frontier expansion
and the peopling of the American West.
Internal Improvements - · Internal improvements are domestic measures to improve
the infrastructure of a country. In the nineteenth century, internal improvements
were mainly advocated by the Whig Party, as in Henry Clay's American
System, which called for the construction of a vast network of
canals and railroads.
Ku Klux Klan - · The Ku Klux Klan developed shortly after the Civil
War in Tennessee as a backlash to radical reconstruction measures
and the rise of black civil rights. After reconstruction fizzled
in the 1870s, the Ku Klux Klan became dormant, only to rise again with
renewed vigor in the twentieth century as black civil rights became
a national issue once again.
Manifest Destiny - · Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States
was inevitably fated to extend its borders to the Pacific Ocean
and to expand both north and south as well. This idea took hold
after the Louisiana Purchase, and became a rallying cry during
the Mexican War and in the westward expansion that ensued.
Monitor - · The Monitor was the prize craft
of the Union naval forces, an ironclad that did battle with the Virginia during
the spring of 1862.
Monroe Doctrine - · The Monroe Doctrine, issued under President James
Monroe in 1823, asserted that the Western hemisphere was the exclusive domain
of the United States. As such, no intervention from the European
Powers would be tolerated. In exchange, the United States resolved
to follow a power of non-interference in European lands and colonies
across the Atlantic Ocean. More symbolic than practical, the Monroe
Doctrine faced a serious test when France occupied Mexico during
the Civil War. (See the History SparkNote on The Monroe
Doctrine for more information.)
Morrill Land Grant Act - · The Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 provided federal
lands and monies for the construction of public colleges and universities.
Several prominent institutions, such as Cornell University, the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, and Purdue University were established
under this legislation.
National Union - · The National Union Party was formed in 1864 out of
a confluence of Republicans and War Democrats in an attempt to keep
the Union war effort strong and re-elect Lincoln. In order to
produce a more balanced ticket, the National Unionists nominated
Tennessee military governor Andrew Johnson for Vice President.
Although their chances looked bleak at times, Lincoln and Johnson
pulled ahead in the November elections for a convincing victory.
New Salem - · New Salem, Illinois was a small frontier town of
the mid-nineteenth century, where the young Lincoln got his start
in life. Living in New Salem between the ages of twenty-two and twenty-six,
Lincoln had his first love affair, earned his law credentials,
and gained his first election to public office.
Nullification - · The principle of nullification holds that a local
or state jurisdiction has the power to overturn a law instituted
by a federal authority. John C. Calhoun was the first strong advocate of
nullification, but his stance was squashed by President Jackson.
Nullification later re-surfaced in the national debate over states'
rights relating to slavery in the months leading up to secession
and the Civil War.
Acts - · The Pacific Railroad Acts of 1862-64 provided for
a central transcontinental railroad running from Chicago to San Francisco,
and later deeded millions of acres of surrounding lands to the
railroad companies themselves.
Peninsular Campaign - · The Peninsular Campaign of 1862 was the Union's first sophisticated
effort to lay waste to Richmond and the Confederacy. Led by General
McClellan, this amphibious strategy began well but faltered in
the Shenandoah Valley during the Seven Days' Battles, when Confederate
forces behind Generals Jackson and Lee dominated the action.
Pocket Veto - · A pocket veto is a presidential filibuster of sorts,
in which the chief executive refuses to address a piece of legislation
for passage and signature until Congress has adjourned, thus rendering
it null and void. Lincoln employed this strategy with regard to
the Wade-Davis Bill.
Popular Sovereignty - · The principle of popular sovereignty, advanced by
Stephen Douglas in the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, held that each local
jurisdiction reserved the right to determine the question of slavery
for themselves. Douglas viewed popular sovereignty as the most
suitably democratic answer to the problem of slavery that wracked
the expanding nation.
Reconstruction - · Reconstruction describes the period from 1865-1877,
when the federal government under Presidents Johnson and Grant, together
with the Congress controlled by Radical Republicans like Thaddeus
Stevens and Charles Sumner, attempted to institute civil rights
reforms in the former Confederate states by a combination of martial
law and policy decrees. Reconstruction ended with the election
of Rutherford B. Hayes and the Compromise of 1877.
Republican - · The Republican Party was established in the 1850s
after the Whig Party found itself on its last legs. Formed in
opposition to the moderate Democratic Party, which equivocated
at every available opportunity on the increasingly heated question
of slavery, the Republicans were much more decidedly in support of
slavery's containment, if not its outright abolition. Eventually,
the rise of the Republicans to power would divide the nation in
half, sparking the southern states to secession and bringing about
the Civil War.
Secession - · Secession is the formal withdrawal of a member state
from an association or union. Several different states had threatened secession
in the first decades of the history of the United States, but it
was only with South Carolina's secession from the Union on December
20, 1860 that the possibility became a reality.
Springfield - · Springfield, Illinois became the capital city of
the state of Illinois in 1837, and was home to Lincoln and family
for over twenty years. During these years, Lincoln practiced law
and established a homestead there.
Tariff - · A tariff is a duty or tax imposed on an imported
or exported good, intended to boost the domestic economy. Because
the northern states were industrialized, and could depend on the south
for its agricultural needs, they were in favor of high tariffs to
protect domestic industries. By contrast, the southern states,
which wished to profit from the export of goods such as cotton, opposed
tariff measures. This frequently disputed policy question exacerbated
regional tensions throughout the early and mid-nineteenth century.
Theater - · A theater is a geographically integrated arena of warfare.
In the Civil War, there were two main theaters: an eastern theater centering
around Richmond and outlying areas of Northern Virginia, and a
western theater that ran along the banks of the Mississippi River,
gradually pushing eastward as the war extended and the Union armies
penetrated further to the south. These two theaters were separated
mainly by the Appalachian Mountains.
Thirteenth Amendment - · The Thirteenth Amendment, ratified on December 18,
1865, provided for the abolition of slavery throughout the United States.
This amendment had originally been proposed by Lincoln as a plank
in his 1864 platform for re- election on the National Union ticket.
Virginia - · The Virginia was a Confederate ironclad
converted from a Union warship formerly called the Merrimac.
The Virginia enjoyed considerable success against
the Union navy before running into a stalemate against the Monitor in
the spring of 1862.
Wade-Davis Bill - · The Wade-Davis Bill of 1864 was a harsh reconstruction measure
proposed by Radical Republicans which required majority loyalty
from a former Confederate state before that state's reapplication
to the Union would be considered. Lincoln pocket-vetoed the bill,
considering it overly punitive.
Wilmot Proviso - · The Wilmot Proviso of 1847 provided for the express prohibition
of slavery from any territory acquired as a result of the Mexican
War. Though the Wilmot Proviso was initiated by a Democratic congressman,
it enjoyed strong Whig support, including that of Representative
Whig - · The Whig Party was formed in the 1830s out of opposition
to the strong rule of President Jackson. Led by vocal senators
such as Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, the Whigs advocated internal improvements,
high tariffs, and a national bank.
- Pierre Beauregard was a Confederate general who
led forces on the firing of Fort Sumter and in battle at First
Manassas. He later oversaw unsuccessful campaigns in Florida and
Georgia during the closing years of the war.
John Bell was the Constitutional Union candidate for president in
1860. He received support mainly in the border states, finishing
a distant third in the electoral college and last among the major
candidates in the popular vote.
devoted abolitionist, John Brown (1800-1859) decided the slaves
must be freed by force. Leading 18 men on an attack of the U.S.
arsenal and armory at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, (presently West
Virginia), he seized the complex and took control of the town.
He was defeated by a company of U.S. marines led by Robert E. Lee,
arrested and charged with various crimes, including treason and
murder. During his trial he spoke eloquently on behalf of the abolition
of slavery, and when he was hanged in December, he became a martyr
to the abolitionist cause. He was immortalized in the song "John
Brown's Body Lies A-Mouldering in his Grave...," a song which became
the trademark tune of the North. The events surrounding his death
served to further heighten the tensions that would lead to civil
John Wilkes Booth
- John Wilkes Booth was Lincoln's assassin. A southern
sympathizer loyal to Virginia, Booth was a twenty-six-year-old
struggling actor at the time of the assassination. Shortly thereafter,
after escaping to Maryland and then Virginia, he was apprehended
and shot to death during a struggle with federal agents in a barn
in rural Virginia.
- Braxton Bragg was a Confederate general whose main
service came in Tennessee, at Shiloh, Mumfreesboro and Chickamauga.
He later served as a military adviser to President Davis.
- John Breckenridge, of Kentucky, served as Vice
President of the United States under James Buchanan from 1857-1861.
Backed by the Southern Democrats, he ran unsuccessfully for president
in 1860, finishing a distant second to Lincoln. He later served
as a Confederate general, seeing action at Shiloh, Mumfreesboro,
and Chickamauga. In the final year of the Civil War, he served
as Confederate Secretary of War.
- James Buchanan served as the fifteenth president
of the United States, from 1857-1861. A Pennsylvanian, he had
previously served as minister to Great Britain, and gained the
Democratic nomination by virtue of his neutrality in domestic affairs.
However, his weak administration did little to help save the rapidly
fragmenting nation, and he did not seek re-election.
- Ambrose Burnside was a Union general who fought
at First Manassas and Antietam before being promoted to command
the eastern forces in battle at Fredericksburg, where he was soundly
defeated by Confederates under the command of Lee.
John C. Calhoun
- John C. Calhoun served as Vice President under Andrew
Jackson from 1829-1833, and later gained further prominence as
a senator from South Carolina. He was a vocal champion of nullification,
and vigorously opposed the high tariffs that were regularly imposed
by northern special interest groups.
- As the result of a political bargain, Simon Cameron,
who held considerable political influence in Pennsylvania, was
named Secretary of War in Lincoln's first cabinet. After less
than a year, he was replaced by Edwin Stanton, and thereafter served
as minister to Russia.
Salmon Chase was governor of Ohio from 1855-1859. As Secretary
of Treasury during Lincoln's first administration, Chase spearheaded
several significant policy decisions involving banking, currency
and taxes. After conspiring to obtain the nomination for president
from Lincoln in 1864, he was relieved of his cabinet duties. Later
that same year, Lincoln appointed Chase as Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court, a post which he filled during the majority of the
reconstruction years, up until 1873.
Henry Clay was a prominent Whig senator from Kentucky who ran unsuccessfully
for President on three occasions. He was a supporter of internal
improvements per his American System, and is well known as "The
Great Compromiser" for his role in the Missouri Compromise and
the Compromise of 1850.
John J. Crittenden
- John J. Crittenden was a senator from Kentucky
who attempted to avert an impending Civil War with a Compromise
in 1860. The so-called Crittenden Compromise failed after Lincoln
dismissed it as too lenient with regard to the containment of slavery.
Crittenden later authored a resolution declaring the preservation
of Union to be the sole war aim of the federal government.
- David Davis was the Eighth Circuit Court Judge
in the State of Illinois, and a crucial engineer of Lincoln's bid
for the presidency in 1860. Thanks to Davis's ingenuity, the Wigwam
in Chicago was packed with Lincoln supporters for the Republican
Convention, and his political wheeling and dealing helped secure
the necessary delegates for Lincoln's nomination.
- Jefferson Davis was a two-term
senator from Mississippi who resigned his seat in the face of the impending
southern secession. Mere weeks later, he was named president of
the Confederate States of America, a position he held throughout
the Civil War. Reluctant to give up his post in the aftermath of
Appomattox, Davis was treated leniently by the federal government
during reconstruction, and lived to the ripe old age of eighty-one.
- Stephen Douglas was a senator from Illinois who
rose quickly up the ranks of the Democratic Party. He proposed
the controversial Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 and defended his
doctrine of popular sovereignty during a series of debates with
Lincoln in 1858. Although he defeated Lincoln in this senate race,
he later lost the presidential election to Lincoln in 1860. Undeterred
from fighting for what he believed was right, he joined forces
with Lincoln in an attempt to preserve the Union, but died just
after the outset of the Civil War in 1861.
- Edward Everett was a senator from Massachusetts
who was nominated for Vice President on the Constitutional Union
ticket under John Bell in 1860. Everett is perhaps best known
today as the principal speaker at the dedication of the Gettysburg cemetery,
where Lincoln made his famous two- minute Gettysburg Address.
- David Farragut was the impetus behind several Union
naval successes, most notably at New Orleans in 1862 and Mobile
in 1864. By the end of the war he had risen to the rank of Vice
John C. Fremont
- John C. Fremont, a notable frontier explorer, was
nominated for President in the 1856 election on the first-ever
Republican ticket. Fremont saw significant action as a general
in the western theater during the early stages of the Civil War,
but was relieved of his duties after freeing several slaves in an
unauthorized show of abolitionist spirit. Later he would mount
a challenge to Lincoln's authority in the Republican-turned National
Union Party, briefly flirting with a run for president in 1864
before withdrawing to improve Lincoln's chances of re-election.
- Mentor Graham was a schoolmaster in New Salem who
taught Lincoln and Ann Rutledge in their youth. He later recalled
the romance between Lincoln and Rutledge to William H. Herndon.
- Union General U.S. Grant began his service in the Civil
War in the western theater, enjoying early successes in Tennessee,
at Shiloh, and later on the Mississippi with the seizure of Vicksburg.
These victories led to his promotion by Lincoln as the overall commander
of Union forces in 1864. After a bloody campaign in Northern Virginia,
Grant finally arrived in Richmond and accepted Lee's surrender
at Appomattox a few short days later. In the years following the
Civil War, Grant was venerated as a national hero, and subsequently
served as the eighteenth president of the United States, from 1869- 1877.
- Horace Greeley was a journalist turned politician
who supported abolitionist causes and was highly critical of Lincoln's
policies throughout the war. He later mounted an unsuccessful
challenge on the Democratic ticket to the incumbent Grant in the presidential
election of 1872.
- Henry Halleck served as overall commander of Union
forces during the middle stages of the Civil War, and was later
named as Lincoln's chief of staff after being replaced by U.S.
- Hannibal Hamlin served as senator from Maine for
over a decade, and was Lincoln's Vice President from 1861-65.
He was replaced on the National Union ticket by Andrew Johnson,
who had a more needed regional appeal and brought in the support
of the War Democrats.
Rutherford B. Hayes
- Rutherford B. Hayes was the nineteenth president
of the United States, serving from 1877-1881. He was elected by
the narrowest of margins after a government committee declared
him the winner in exchange for an end to reconstruction. This arrangement
became known as the Compromise of 1877.
- William H. Herndon was Lincoln's
law partner from 1844 on. He later wrote a controversial biography
of Lincoln's early life.
John Bell Hood
- John Bell Hood was a Confederate General who fought
in the eastern theater during the early stages of the Civil War,
seeing action at Second Manassas, Antietam and Gettysburg. Later
he was transferred to the western theater, where he led a victory
at Chickamauga and fought a losing battle in Tennessee up until
the closing days of the war.
- Joseph Hooker fought at Antietam and Fredericksburg
and served briefly as overall commander in the eastern theater,
suffering an ignominious defeat at Chancellorsville. He later served
under Sherman during the siege of Atlanta.
- Andrew Jackson was a heroic
general who had won military honor at the Battle of New Orleans,
the concluding conflict in the War of 1812. He later served as
seventh president of the United States from 1829-1837, emerging
as the most significant Democratic leader of his era. Although
an advocate of states' rights, Jackson asserted the power of the
federal government during the Nullification Crisis sparked by John
C. Calhoun of South Carolina.
- Stonewall Jackson was a
Confederate General who commanded victories at First Manassas,
during the Seven Days' Battles, and at Fredericksburg. Tragically,
he was inadvertently shot and killed by his own men during the
Battle of Chancellorsville.
- Andrew Johnson was appointed
military governor of Tennessee in 1862. The only major official from
a Confederate state to remain loyal to the Union, he was later
named Lincoln's running mate as Vice President on the National
Union ticket in the election of 1864. After Lincoln's assassination,
Johnson became the seventeenth president of the United States, serving
from 1865-1869. He suffered from a rocky administration due to
the complications of reconstruction, later abandoning the Republicans
who opposed him to pursue re-election on the Democratic ticket
in the election of 1868, which he lost to U.S. Grant.
Sarah Bush Johnston
- A Kentucky widow, Sarah Bush Johnston was remarried
to Thomas Lincoln in 1819, and raised the young Abraham Lincoln
from the age of ten.
Robert E. Lee
- Robert E. Lee was offered command of the Union armies
at the outset of the Civil War, but refused out of loyalty to his
native Virginia. Later emerging as general-in-chief of the Confederate
army, Lee fought brilliantly in the eastern theater for over three
years despite inferior manpower and munitions. Lee signed the
surrender to Grant at Appomattox and went on to become the president
of what is today known as Washington and Lee College.
- Edward Baker Lincoln was
the second son to Abraham and Mary Todd Lincoln. He died prematurely
in 1850 at the age of three.
Mary Todd Lincoln
- Mary Todd Lincoln, born of a prominent Kentucky
family, married Lincoln on November 4, 1842. She bore him four
children, and struggled to harmonize with her aloof husband throughout
their marriage. After his assassination, her already delicate constitution
was upset beyond repair. Her son Robert committed her to an institution
in 1875, and she later died in Springfield in 1882.
- Nancy Hanks Lincoln was
Lincoln's mother. Little is known about her, as her origins are obscure
and she died at a young age of milk sickness. According to Herndon,
Lincoln believed her to be the product of an illegitimate union.
- Robert Todd Lincoln
was the eldest son to Abraham and Mary Todd Lincoln. He attended Harvard
University during his father's administration, later serving under
Grant in the closing months of the Civil War. He later went on
to a successful political career in his own right, functioning
as minister to Great Britain and ultimately as Secretary of War.
- Sarah Lincoln was the eldest child born to Thomas and
Nancy Hanks Lincoln. She died while giving birth in 1828, leaving
Lincoln as the only surviving child of his birth parents.
- Thomas "Tad" Lincoln was the youngest son to Abraham
and Mary Todd Lincoln. Born in 1853, he lived only into his late
teenage years, dying in 1871.
- Thomas Lincoln was
born and raised in Virginia, later moving to Kentucky to establish
himself and his young family. He was married twice. Later moving
to Indiana and finally Illinois, he had a distant relationship
with his son, who declined to attend his own father's funeral in
William Wallace Lincoln
Wallace Lincoln was the third son to Abraham and Mary Todd Lincoln.
He died prematurely at the White House in 1862 at the age of eleven.
Stephen T. Logan
- Stephen T. Logan was Lincoln's second law partner.
The two men worked together between 1841 and 1844.
- Union General George McClellan saw early action during
the Civil War in Western Virginia, where he enjoyed several victories.
After earning promotion to command forces in the eastern theater,
McClellan suffered a defeat in his Peninsular Campaign, later redeeming
himself in part at Antietam. Nevertheless, Lincoln dismissed him
from his duties. Earning the Democratic nomination for President
in 1864, McClellan mounted an unsuccessful campaign against Lincoln's
bid for re-election.
- Irvin McDowell was a Union general who suffered
defeats at First and Second Manassas and was subsequently relieved
of his duties.
George Meade was a Union general who fought at Antietam and Fredericksburg
and later took command of the eastern theater in 1863, enjoyed
a rousing success at Gettysburg. He remained in control of the
eastern forces until the end of the Civil War.
III became the Emperor of France in 1852, after having previously
served as leader of the Second French Republic for four years.
He ruled France until suffering defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
of 1870-71. During the Civil War, he attempted to negotiate a
peace treaty between the Union and the Confederacy, and violated
the Monroe Doctrine when he occupied Mexico and set Archduke Maximillian
on the throne there in 1863.
Owens was a Kentucky woman whom Lincoln briefly courted in the late
1830s, only for her to reject his proposal of marriage.
- Archduke Maximillian of the Hapsburg dynasty was
set up on the throne of Mexico by Napoleon III's occupying forces
in Mexico in 1863. After the Civil War, when the United States
came to Mexico's defense and removed the French influence there,
Maximillian was deposed and beheaded.
- Franklin Pierce served as the fourteenth president of
the United States, from 1853-1857. As a result of his ineffectual
administration, he failed to secure re-nomination on the Democratic
ticket in the election of 1856.
James K. Polk
- James K. Polk served as the eleventh president
of the United States, from 1845- 1849. A fierce proponent of manifest
destiny, Polk spearheaded westward expansion and oversaw the progress
of the Mexican War. His powerful Democratic administration was
bitterly opposed by a cadre of congressional Whigs, including Lincoln.
Union General John Pope was roundly defeated at Second Manassas
and later served as a commander in the western theater.
Ann Rutledge was a New Salem woman rumored to have been engaged
to Lincoln when both were in their young twenties. After she died
unexpectedly in 1835, Lincoln was distraught, and remained a frequent
visitor to her gravesite for the rest of his life.
- William Seward was a former governor and senator
from New York who opposed Lincoln for the Republican nomination
for president in 1860. After being defeated, he accepted a post
in Lincoln's cabinet as Secretary of State, and played a significant
role in the development of Union policy during the Civil War. Nearly
assassinated on the night of Lincoln's assassination, Seward recovered
to continue as Secretary of State in Johnson's cabinet, and negotiated the
purchase of Alaska from Russia.
- Horatio Seymour was twice governor of New York
and a prominent Copperhead leader in opposition to Lincoln. The
New York City Draft Riots occurred under his administration.
- Winfield Scott earned distinction as a general
in both the War of 1812 and the Mexican War. He ran unsuccessfully
for President on the Whig ticket against Franklin Pierce in the
Election of 1852. Later, he masterminded the Anaconda Plan in
the early stages of the Civil War, retiring from duty in late 1861.
- Phil Sheridan fought for the Union in the Tennessee campaign
of 1863 at Mumfreesboro and Chickamauga and was later promoted
to General, where he fought in various battles alongside Grant
- Union General William Tecumseh Sherman
fought at First Manassas and Shiloh, later directing the masterful
siege of Atlanta: he captured, evacuated, and burned the city before
laying waste to the state of Georgia in his march to the sea.
In the closing months of the Civil War, forces under Sherman pushed
North toward Richmond in a successful effort to close out the Confederates.
- James Shields was the Illinois State Auditor who challenged
Lincoln to a duel in 1842, in violation of existing state laws.
The confrontation was later called off after a series of conciliatory
- Edwin Stanton served as Union Secretary of War from
1862 to 1868. He had a strong role in Lincoln's cabinet and assumed
near-total control of the nation in the wake of Lincoln's assassination.
After President Johnson attempted to remove Stanton from office
in 1868 over a disagreement regarding reconstruction, Johnson was
impeached and nearly removed from office. Stanton died in the following
J. E. B. Stuart
- J. E. B. Stuart was a Confederate general who fought
at First and Second Manassas, Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville,
among others. He was wounded in battle and died in the spring
John T. Stuart
- John T. Stuart encouraged Lincoln to take up the study
of law. The two men formed a law partnership between 1837 and
- Charles Sumner was a staunch abolitionist and a founding
member of the Republican party. A longtime senator from Massachusetts,
he was attacked by Preston Brooks of South Carolina on the Senate
floor after making an eloquent argument against the Kansas-Nebraska
Act. During reconstruction, Sumner led a radical push to penalize
the south for their transgressions, but eventually he softened
Roger B. Taney
- Roger B. Taney was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
from 1835-1864. He issued the landmark Dred Scott
in 1857, and fiercely opposed Lincoln's extension of executive
privilege during the Civil War.
- Zachary Taylor served as twelfth president of the United
States, from 1849-1850. He was elected on the Whig ticket on the
strength of his performance in the Mexican War. Opposed to the
appeasement of southern interests, he died in office as the Compromise of
1850 was being negotiated in Congress.
Clement L. Vallandigham
- Clement L. Vallandigham was a congressman from Ohio
and a prominent Copperhead. In 1863 Lincoln banished him from
the Union after he was arrested on charges of treason. He later
returned to campaign on behalf of McClellan against Lincoln in
the 1864 presidential election.
- Queen Victoria was the reigning monarch in Britain
from 1837 until 1901, and served as Empress of India from 1876
until 1901. Under her rule, Britain remained neutral during the
American Civil War, although tensions ran high during the Trent
Whitman was a renowned American poet who authored the much-lauded Leaves
He served as a nurse in Washington during the
Civil War, and later became a close friend and adviser to Lincoln.
(For more information, see the SparkNote on Walt Whitman's Poetry.
Annexation of Texas - As per its program of manifest destiny, the United States annexed,
or incorporated, Texas in 1844 after Texas had successfully won
its independence from Mexico. This development eventually led
to the outbreak of the Mexican War in 1846.
Antietam - After Lee's charge into Union territory, he was repulsed
at Antietam by forces under the command of McClellan on September
17, 1862 in the bloodiest single day of the Civil War.
Appomattox Court House - Appomattox Court House was the name of the small town
in south central Virginia where Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9,
1865, effectively ending the Civil War.
Black Hawk War - The Black Hawk War of 1832 was fought in Illinois and
Iowa when the Sac and Fox tribes led by Black Hawk unsuccessfully attempted
to reclaim their native homelands.
Chancellorsville - The Battle of Chancellorsville, fought May 2, 1863, was
yet another disastrous defeat for the Union in Northern Virginia, this
time under the command of Hooker.
Chickamauga - Chickamauga, fought September 19-20, 1863, was one of
the last significant Confederate successes in the western theater.
Losses were heavy as usual.
Civil Rights Act of 1866 - The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was an early attempt by
the Radical Republicans to assert federal power in the southern
states during reconstruction. The act, which bestowed citizenship
among all blacks, was overturned by the Supreme Court in 1883 as
a violation of states' rights.
Civil Rights Act of 1875 - The Civil Rights Act of 1875, the last major piece of
legislation passed by the federal government during reconstruction,
was an attempt to desegregate all public places in the southern
states. This was a highly ambitious and unrealistic goal, and
quickly proved impracticable, especially after reconstruction officially ended
with the Compromise of 1877.
Compromise of 1850 - The Compromise of 1850, engineered by Henry Clay, allowed for
the entry of California to the Union as a free state in exchange for
a stricter fugitive slave law. However, the compromise did not
settle the question of slavery in the western territories, which led
to increased tensions that came to a head only after the passage
of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854.
Compromise of 1877 - After the election of 1876 ended inconclusively, a
congressional committee met to determine the winner between Republican Rutherford
B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel Tilden. In the Compromise of 1877,
Southern Democrats swung their support to Hayes in exchange for
an end to reconstruction, and the withdrawal of federal troops
from the five military zones in the former Confederacy.
Dred Scott decision - In a landmark decision handed down March 6, 1857, Chief Justice
Roger B. Taney argued that a slave was not a citizen of the United
States, and thus could not bring a lawsuit to a federal court.
Further, he noted that as per the Fifth Amendment, no slave-owning
citizen could be deprived of property, i.e. his slaves, without
due process of law. This controversial decision opened up the
territories and the several free-soil states to legalized slavery,
and heightened regional tensions over the slavery question considerably.
First Inaugural Address - Lincoln gave his First Inaugural Address on March 4,
1861, hoping to avert civil war by asserting the necessity of preserving the
union without coming down too hard on the slavery question.
First Manassas - Fought on July 21, 1861, First Manassas, also known
as the First Battle of Bull Run, ended in catastrophe for the Union,
and served to revise northern opinion that the Civil War would
come to a quick conclusion.
Fredericksburg - The Union suffered a crucial defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg
on December 13, 1862. After General Burnside was forced to stay
along the northern banks of the Rappahannock River for two weeks,
the Confederacy was able to mobilize its forces, and successfully
turned back yet another aborted Union offensive in Northern Virginia.
Gettysburg - Gettysburg was the turning point of the Civil War. After
Lee and Stuart pushed well north into Union territory, Union and Confederate
forces met in Southern Pennsylvania during a three-day battle that
lasted from July 1-3, 1863. Once Union forces led by Meade had
repulsed the Confederate charge, Lee never seriously challenged
the Union in their own territory again, and the stage was set for
the gradual Union push to Appomattox.
Gettysburg Address - Lincoln delivered his two-minute Gettysburg Address
at the dedication of a national cemetery there on November 19,
1863. Famous though it is today, at the time it fell somewhat
flat, and Lincoln was thought to have been overshadowed by the principal
speaker of the day, Edward Everett.
Kansas-Nebraska Act - Stephen Douglas pushed the Kansas-Nebraska Act through Congress
in 1854, effectively nullifying the Missouri Compromise. By this
new legislation, the question of slavery was once again thrown
open to the discretion of each territory by verdict of Douglas's
popular sovereignty principle. This eventually led to the onset
of violent warfare between rival factions in Kansas, and was an
indirect cause of the Civil War.
Debates - During his 1858 run for Senate on the Republican ticket
in Illinois, Lincoln engaged the incumbent Democrat Douglas in
a series of seven debates across the state. These debates, which occurred
in the weeks and months leading up to election day, received national
attention and propelled Lincoln to prominence. During the second
debate at Freeport, Douglas advanced a doctrine defending the Kansas-Nebraska
Act and popular sovereignty even in the face of the Dred
Mexican War - Fought between 1846 and 1848, the Mexican War was an attempt
by the United States under President Polk to assert its right to
expansionism by virtue of manifest destiny. Seen as a Democratic
power play and an act of foreign aggression, the war was opposed
by many prominent Whigs, including Lincoln. (For more information,
see the History SparkNote on the Mexican War.)
Missouri Compromise - The Missouri Compromise of 1820 was engineered by Henry Clay.
It allowed for the entry of Missouri to the Union as a slave state,
largely in exchange for the creation of a demarcation line categorically
prohibiting the extension slavery north of Missouri's southern
border. This legislation was later repealed by Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska
Act and Taney's Dred Scott decision.
Mumfreesboro - The Battle of Mumfreesboro, fought between December
31, 1862 and January 2, 1863, was a costly affair for both Union and
Confederacy in which no clear winner emerged, and no clear tactical
objective was accomplished.
New York City Draft Riots - The New York City Draft Riots, staged between July
12 and 15, 1863, were a protest against the Conscription Act, and particularly
the "rich man's exemption." Prompted in particular by the Irish-American
community, the riots featured looting, lynching, and pillaging.
After Lincoln sent troops up from Gettysburg to quell the disturbance,
hundreds of people were killed or wounded.
Panic of 1837 - The Panic of 1837 resulted from rampant speculation in combination
with President Jackson's continuing opposition to the national
bank. It hampered the economy for several years and severely damaged
the presidency of Martin Van Buren, Jackson's successor.
Panic of 1857 - The Panic of 1857, caused by a major bank failure, plagued President
Buchanan's administration and added an element of economic tension
to a nation already strained by the question of slavery.
Panic of 1873 - The Panic of 1873 was mainly caused by overexpansion
during the reconstruction years. Under President Grant, the federal government
decided to re-issue greenbacks in hopes of reviving the economy,
despite Grant's previous opposition to any deviation from the gold
Address - Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address, given on March 4,
1865, was notably shorter than his First Inaugural. With the end
of the war in sight, Lincoln appealed to his audience for a compassionate
approach toward reconstruction and the soon-to-be defeated Confederacy.
Second Manassas - A retreating Union army was overwhelmed at Second Manassas, or
the Second Battle of Bull Run. Fought on September 29-30, 1862,
this Confederate victory encouraged Lee to enter Union territory
on the offensive, leading to the Battle of Antietam.
Seven Days' Battles - The culmination of McClellan's Peninsular Campaign, the
Seven Days' Battles ended in defeat for the Union forces after
a brilliant defensive by Generals Jackson and Lee. Fought from
June 25-July 1, 1862, this bloody campaign was one of the most
costly to be fought in the eastern theater during the early stages
of the Civil War.
Sherman's March to the Sea - After capturing, evacuating, and burning the city of
Atlanta in the autumn of 1864, Sherman led a savage six-week march across
the Georgia countryside, consuming and destroying everything of
potential use to the Confederate army for miles around. Just before
the New Year he arrived at Savannah, meeting up with the Union
navy and preparing to begin his push north to Richmond.
Shiloh - The Battle at Shiloh was fought on April 6-7, 1862.
It has been estimated that fully 80 percent of the nearly 80,000
men who fought at Shiloh had never been involved in battle before.
Casualties were high throughout. After an initial pounding, Union
forces under Grant gradually rallied to stave off the Confederate
Trent Affair - The Trent Affair involved the Union
seizure of two Confederate diplomats on board a British mail steamer
in November 1861. After the diplomats were transported to a jail
in Boston, British sentiment rose in anger against the Union.
Only when the British had mobilized a significant army to march
against the Union did Lincoln relinquish the prisoners and issue
an apology in order to smooth over relations between the two countries.
Vicksburg - Vicksburg finally fell to Union forces led by Grant on
July 4, 1863 after a lengthy siege. This victory gave the Union
complete control of the Mississippi River and did much to constrict
the leverage of the Confederate forces in the western theater.
War of 1812
- The War
was fought between the United States and Great
Britain over control of the high seas. After a lengthy campaign,
the United States emerged victorious, producing in the process
a new set of war heroes including Andrew Jackson and Winfield Scott.