The ABC Powers - · The countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. In 1914
they arbitrated the dispute between the United States and Victoriano Huerta's
dictatorship government in Mexico.
Alligators - · The Alligators was Wilson's eating club while an undergraduate student
at Princeton University. As president of the same university, Wilson
later attacked this and similar eating clubs as being snobbish,
and attempted to eliminate them with his quadrangle plan.
Arabic - · The Arabic was a passenger liner sunk
by a German U-boat in 1915.
Big Four - · The term Big Four refers to the leaders of the world's
most powerful nations that attended the Paris Peace Conference
and drafted the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I in
1918. The Big Four were American President Woodrow Wilson, British
Prime Minister Lloyd George, Italian Premier Vittorio Orlando,
and French Premier Georges Clemenceau.
Bryn Mawr College - · Woodrow Wilson served as Bryn Mawr College's first
history professor from 1885 until 1888. Located in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania,
the college was modeled after Johns Hopkins and designed to educate
young women. While there, Wilson began writing The State. He
eventually left the school because he disliked teaching women.
Central Powers - · The Central powers in World War I were Germany, the
Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Ottoman Empire. They fought against
the Entente powers or Allies.
Collective security - · Collective security is the idea that nations can work
together constructively to prevent war. Wilson's believed that
a lasting peace after World War I could only be established if
the major powers worked together to ensure collective security
in the new League of Nations.
Committee on Public Information - · President Wilson established the Committee of Public Information
shortly after declaring war on Germany in 1917. The committee was
responsible for issuing pro- war propaganda; however, the committee's
director George Creel merely succeeded in spreading an already
growing anti-German hysteria.
Government - · Published in 1885, Congressional Government was
Wilson's first book, and its success brought him academic fame.
The work analyzes the American legislative system, and is still
considered to be one of the best works on American government ever written.
Constitutionalists - · The Constitutionalists in Mexico opposed Mexican dictator Victoriano
Huerta and received support from Wilson during the country's civil
Davidson College - · Woodrow Wilson's first undergraduate year was spent
at the Presbyterian Davidson College in North Carolina in 1873
where he earned average marks. He left Davidson after his first
year because the living conditions were harsh and his health was poor.
Division and Reunion - · Woodrow Wilson wrote Division and Reunion while
at Princeton University in 1893. The book analyzed the period of American
history between the 1830s and the end of Reconstruction after the
Civil War. It was published in the Epochs of American History
Series edited by Albert Bushell Hart.
Dominican Republic - · President Wilson authorized the invasion and occupation
of the Dominican Republic in 1916 to end widespread violence in
Entente Powers - · The Entente powers, or Allied powers, during World
War I were Great Britain, France, and Russia. The United States
joined the war to assist the Entente powers against the Central
Espionage Act - · Wilson signed the 1917 Espionage Act, which hindered
free speech by legalizing government censorship during World War
Federal Reserve Act - · Passed in 1913, the Federal Reserve Act created a strong
national banking system.
Fourteen Points - · Wilson delivered his famous Fourteen Points Speech
on January 8, 1918, to encourage the Germans to negotiate for a
peace settlement to end World War I. The speech outlined fourteen specific
goals for the Allies to achieve in order to establish a lasting
peace after the war. Eight of those goals were very specific, five
promoted general ideas such as self-determination, and the final
called for the creation of the League of Nations.
Geran Bill - · The Geran Bill was New Jersey Governor Wilson's promised legislation
to attack the political machines in the state.
Haiti - · Wilson ordered U.S. military forces to invade and occupy
the small Caribbean island of Haiti in 1915 to end a bloody civil war.
of the American People - · Woodrow Wilson published his largest work, History
of the American People, in 1902.
Johns Hopkins University - · Woodrow Wilson studied at Johns Hopkins University
in Baltimore, Maryland, from 1883 to 1885. He received his Ph.D. in
political science from the University in 1886. While at Hopkins,
Wilson wrote and published Congressional Government, which
received high praise and made his reputation as a distinguished
and respected political scientist.
Jones Act - · Wilson fought for the passage of the 1916 Jones Act
to grant the American- occupied Philippine Islands more political
League of Nations - · Wilson fought for the creation of the League of Nations
during the Paris Peace Conference. The League was designed to be
a forum consisting of nations from around the world where leaders
and representatives could address grievances and promote ideals
such as self-determination. Such a forum, Wilson believed, would
ensure collective security. Wilson chaired the committee that drafted
the League's covenant that was eventually included in the Treaty
of Versailles. Many in the U.S. Senate bitterly opposed the League.
Liberalism - · Liberalism is a theory of foreign policy and international relations
that promotes ideals such as collective security, self-determination,
and democracy. Woodrow Wilson is regarded to be the father of the
liberalist school of thought.
Lusitania - · The Lusitania was a British ocean
liner sunk by a German U-boat in May of 1915. Nearly 1,200 civilians
died in the attack, including 124 Americans.
Monroe Doctrine - · The Monroe Doctrine declared that European powers have
no authority in the Western Hemisphere and must not involve themselves
in the affairs of North and South American countries. The doctrine
also claimed that the United States had the right to intervene
anywhere in the hemisphere to ensure its security. The Monroe Doctrine
was named for President James Monroe who declared the doctrine
in the early 1820s.
New Freedom - · The New Freedom was President Wilson's domestic policy
plan. Wilson's goals under the New Freedom included reforming the national
banking system, reducing the national tariff, and strengthening
the Sherman Act.
Nicaragua - · Wilson ordered the occupation of Nicaragua in Central
America in 1914 after a bungled American attempt to end the country's civil
Overman Act - · Wilson fought for and signed the Overman Act in 1918
when conservative Republicans tired to take control of the war
effort from him. The act gave him much personal power and established
him as the de facto head of the U.S. World War I war machine.
Panama Canal Act - · The Panama Canal Act of 1912 exempted United States merchant
ships sailing between U.S. ports via the canal from paying the
canal's toll. Wilson believed this act violated a treaty with Great
Britain and successfully encouraged Congress to repeal the act
Payne-Aldrich Tariff - · The Payne-Aldrich Tariff was a Republican tariff passed
in 1909 to protect American manufacturers. The tariff placed a
forty-percent tax on many of the nation's most heavily imported goods.
Plutocracy - · The plutocracy refers to the few Americans who controlled
an extraordinary amount of wealth. Prominent members included oil
tycoon John David Rockefeller, steel producer Andrew Carnegie,
and banker J.P. Morgan, who was also the richest man in the world
at the time, having a net worth of over one billion dollars.
Machine - · Political machines were Democratic and Republican Party organizations
that controlled the election and campaigning processes. Machines
often controlled local and state politics in large cities during
the late 1800s and early 1900s. Powerful politicians called bosses
controlled the machines. Boss James Smith, Jr. ran the New Jersey
Democratic political machine around the turn of the century and
helped Woodrow Wilson become governor of the state in 1910.
Populist - · The Populist Party was a radical political party that
advocated extremely liberal legislation and policies to help primarily
poor Midwestern farmers. They desired "free silver"–more and cheaper
money to be printed–and the U.S. dollar to be backed by silver
instead of gold. The party's champion was William Jennings Bryan.
By the early 1900s, the party had become essentially dead because
Americans outside the Midwest did not seek the same goals. The
Progressive movement did spread throughout the country and many
of its original idealism stemmed from the Populist movement.
Preceptorial system - · The preceptorial system was a method of education that
Wilson devised while president of Princeton University. The system replaced
the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form
where small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with
a single professor, or preceptor, in their field of interest. The
system was highly successful and many schools throughout the U.S.
have adopted similar versions.
Princeton University - · Originally called the College of New Jersey, Princeton
University was founded in 1746 and soon became one of the nation's
most prestigious institutions of higher learning. Woodrow Wilson transferred
to the college in 1875 after spending a year at Davidson College,
and graduated with honors in the class of 1879. In 1890, Wilson
returned to Princeton to teach political economy and jurisprudence,
and later served as the university's president from 1902 to 1910.
Progressive - · Progressives were primarily northerners who sought
reform in government and society in the early 1900s. Prominent Progressive
Presidents include Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.
Punitive Expedition - · The Punitive Expedition was a U.S. Army force of roughly
5,000 men commanded by General John J. Pershing sent by Wilson 1916
to pursue of rebel Pancho Villa. The expeditionary force pursued
Villa nearly 300 miles south of the border into Mexico and eventually
fought two battles against the Mexican army under Venustiano Carranza's
leadership. Wilson recalled the force in January of 1917.
Quadrangle Plan - · The quadrangle plan was Wilson's plan to eliminate
the eating clubs and bring diverse groups of students together
at Princeton University. The plan called for a several dormitories
to be built throughout the campus that would also serve as self
contained colleges where students could eat, attend classes, and
receive academic counseling and help from tutors. Each dormitory would
surround a central inner courtyard, forming a quadrangle.
Sedition Act - · Wilson signed the Sedition Act of 1918 which outlawed
speaking out against the government and American involvement in
World War I. Socialist Eugene V. Debs was the most prominent dissenter
who was prosecuted under the law.
Self-Determination - · Self-determination is the idea that people throughout
the world have the right to determine their own form of government
and destiny. This was one of the key concepts of Wilson's Fourteen Points.
Sherman Act - · Congress passed the Sherman Act in 1890 in an attempt
to eliminate trusts and the unfair business practices they employed to
secure monopolies on their products. Although President Theodore
Roosevelt had much success in attacking the trusts with the act,
Wilson only had moderate success.
Sixteenth Amendment - · Ratified in 1913, the Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution permits
Congress to levy a federal income tax.
Square Deal - · The Square Deal was President Theodore Roosevelt's
bundle of progressive domestic policies and programs.
The State - · While he taught at Wesleyan University Professor Woodrow Wilson
wrote and published The State in 1889. It was
the first textbook ever written on comparative government, and
many Wilson scholars and political scientists regard it as his
Staunton - · Staunton, Virginia, was the birthplace of Woodrow Wilson.
It is now a National Historic Site.
Sussex - · The Sussex was a passenger liner sunk
by a German U-boat in March 1916.
Tariff - · A tariff is a tax on imported goods.
Treaty of Versailles - · The Treaty of Versailles drafted at the Paris Peace
Conference was the primary treaty that ended World War I. Over
thirty nations participated in drafting the treaty, but its major
authors were the Big Four nations. The Treaty included the charter
for the new League of Nations drafted by President Wilson. The U.S.
Senate refused to ratify the treaty.
Trusts - · Trusts are large corporations that specialize in producing
one product and attempt to create a monopoly. There were scores
of trusts in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Within months of becoming
President, Theodore Roosevelt attacked the trusts, prosecuting
them under the authority of the Sherman Act. President Wilson tried
to continue Roosevelt's trust-busting tradition, but had only little
U-boat - · A U-boat, or underwater boat, was a German submarine
in World War I.
Underwood Act - · The Underwood Act was a law passed in 1913 to reduce
the Republican Payne-Aldrich Tariff. This act reduced the overall tariff
to approximately twenty-five percent; eliminated the tax entirely
on steel, wool, clothing, and sugar; and created a federal income
University of Virginia - · Founded by a generous grant from President Thomas Jefferson
in the 1790s, the University of Virginia is the nation's oldest
public university. Woodrow Wilson entered the school of law at
the university in 1879 but left in 1880 because of poor health.
War Revenue Act - · The 1917 War Revenue Act increased taxes to an unprecedented level
to pay for the American war effort in World War I. The act increased
the highest income tax bracket to sixty-seven percent the first
year and seventy-seven percent the following year.
Wesleyan University - · Woodrow Wilson taught at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut,
from 1888 until 1900. While there he coached a championship football
team, published The State, and organized the school's
debating society. He left Wesleyan to accept a teaching position
at Princeton University.
Zimmerman Note - · The Zimmerman Note was a communiqué authored by German Foreign
Secretary Arthur Zimmerman and intercepted by American Intelligence.
The note had been designed to entice Mexico into declaring war
against the United States should the U.S. declare war on Germany.
As a reward, Mexico would then receive Arizona, New Mexico, and
Texas after the war.
Dr. Herbert Adams
- Dr. Herbert Adams was Wilson's most difficult professor
at Johns Hopkins University. Educated in Germany, Adams believed
in hard work and discipline and pushed Woodrow to develop his academic
William E. Borah
- William E. Borah, a Republican Senator, led the opposition
against Wilson's League of Nations in the Treaty of Versailles.
William Jennings Bryan
- William Jennings Bryan ran for President four times
in his lifetime and was defeated four times. He ran on the Populist
Party ticket and the Democratic ticket between the years 1892 and
1908. He advocated printing more money to help impoverished farmers and
eliminating the gold standard
- Venustiano Carranza of the Constitutionalists became
Mexico's president after Victoriano Huerta was deposed in 1915.
His ascendancy spurred Pancho Villa to initiate a second civil
war in which the U.S. became entangled. Carranza's soldiers and
the U.S. Punitive Expedition clashed in Mexico twice before Wilson
recalled the U.S. troops.
- Georges Clemenceau was the Premier of France during
and after World War I. He was a member of the Big Four at the Paris
- Bainbridge Colby served as President Wilson's third
Secretary of State towards the end of his second administration.
He and Wilson also established a Washington, D.C., law firm after
Wilson stepped down as President.
James M. Cox
M. Cox ran for President of the United States on the Democratic
ticket in 1920. He was defeated by Republican Warren G. Harding.
Eugene V. Debs
V. Debs ran for President against Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt,
and William Howard Taft on the Socialist Party ticket in 1912.
After the United States entered World War I, he was imprisoned
under the Sedition Act of 1918 for speaking out against the war.
George was Great Britain's Prime Minister during and after World
War I. He attended the Paris Peace Conference and was a member
of the Big Four.
Warren G. Harding
- Warren G. Harding served as the twenty-ninth President
of the United States. He defeated Democrat James M. Cox in the
election of 1920.
Harvey was one of New Jersey's most powerful political voices in
the early 1900s when Wilson ran for governor. Although he was not
a politician himself, he acted behind the scenes and helped Wilson
get elected. He was also the editor of Harper's Weekly
- Colonel House became one
of Wilson's most trusted friends and advisors shortly before Wilson
was elected President in 1912.
- Mexico dissolved into civil war shortly after Wilson's
1913 inauguration when Victoriano Huerta seized control of the
nation's government from the Constitutionalists. Tensions between
Mexico and the U.S. culminated in Wilson's seizure of the Mexican port
of Veracruz. Wilson appealed to the ABC powers to arbitrate the
Charles Evans Hughes
- Charles Evans Hughes ran against Wilson for the Presidency
in 1916 on the Republican ticket. He lost by only twenty-three
votes in the Electoral College.
Hiram W. Johnson
- Hiram W. Johnson was a Republican Senator who led
the isolationist opposition to the Treaty of Versailles and the
League of Nations.
- Abraham Lincoln served as the sixteenth President
of the United States. His abolitionist and pro-Northern policies
prompted many Southern politicians to push for secession after
his election to the Presidency in 1860.
Henry Cabot Lodge
- Henry Cabot Lodge was a Republican Senator who served
throughout the first decade of the 1900s. During Wilson's second
administration, he supported Wilson's League of Nations in the
Treaty of Versailles, but had many reservations. As Chairman of
the Senate Foreign Relations Committee he led the discussion and debate
on the treaty and League.
William G. McAdoo
- William G. McAdoo served as Wilson's Secretary of
the Treasury. He later married Wilson's daughter Eleanor in 1914.
- Vittorio Orlando was the Premier of Italy both during
and after World War I. He was a member of the Big Four at the Paris
Peace Conference in 1918.
General John J. Pershing
- General John J. Pershing led the U.S. Punitive Expedition
into Mexico in 1916 in pursuit of former Mexican general Pancho
Villa. A year later, he commanded over 1,200,000 American troops
in France during World War I. He is the only U.S. General to ever
receive five stars.
Edward I. Renick
- Edward Renick attended law school at the University
of Virginia with Woodrow Wilson in 1879. In 1882, the two practiced
law together at their new firm "Renick and Wilson" until a lack
of clients forced them out of business.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
- Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who later became the thirty-second
President of the United States, served as the Assistant Secretary
of the Navy during World War I.
- Theodore Roosevelt served as the twenty-sixth President
of the United States from 1901 to 1908.
James Smith, Jr.
- James Smith, Jr. was New Jersey's most powerful boss
of the state's Democratic political machine in the early 1900s.
Along with George Harvey, he helped Wilson become governor of the
state in 1910. After Wilson was elected, the two men fought over
William Howard Taft
- William Taft was a loyal supporter of Roosevelt during
his Presidency, and served as Roosevelt's Governor of the Philippine
Islands and as Secretary of War. He and Roosevelt were steadfast friends.
When Roosevelt refused to run for a third presidential term in
1908, he nominated Taft as the Republican candidate. Taft was elected
as the twenty-seventh President in 1908, defeating William Jennings Bryan.
After Roosevelt returned from Europe and Africa, the two men had
a political disagreement that soon turned into a bitter personal
hatred. They ran against each other in the election of 1912, Taft
as the Republican candidate and Roosevelt as the Bull Moose Party
candidate. They split the Republican Party, allowing Woodrow Wilson
to become President. Taft later served as a U.S. Supreme Court
Pancho Villa of the Mexican army began a civil war when his rival
Venustiano Carranza was named the country's new president in 1915.
To bring the United States into the war, Villa led several raids into
the American Southwest. During his most destructive raid, he killed
nineteen Americans and burned a small town in New Mexico. In response, Wilson
sent General John J. Pershing and the Punitive Expedition into
Mexico in pursuit of Villa, but he was never captured.
- George Washington served as a General in the American
Continental Army and as the first President of the United States.
Andrew Fleming West
- Andrew Fleming West was the Dean of Graduate Studies
at Princeton University while Wilson served as the president of
the same institution. Towards the end of Wilson's tenure as the
university's president, the two men battled over plans to build
a new graduate school. West eventually won.
- Edith Galt Wilson was
Woodrow Wilson's second wife. The two married on December 18, 1915. They
had no children together.
- Eleanor Wilson was born in
1889 and was the last daughter born to Woodrow and Ellen Axson
Wilson. She married William G. McAdoo in the White House on May
- Ellen Axson Wilson was Woodrow
Wilson's first wife. They met in 1883 and were married two years
later before Wilson entered Johns Hopkins University as a graduate
student. The couple had three children, Margaret, Jessie, and Eleanor.
First Lady Ellen Wilson died on August 6, 1914, from kidney failure
caused by tuberculosis.
- Jessie Woodrow was
born in the summer of 1887, and was the second daughter of three
born to Woodrow and Ellen Axson Wilson. She was named for Woodrow
- Doctor Joseph Ruggles
Wilson was a prominent Presbyterian minister and educator in the South.
A highly educated man, Dr. Wilson taught his son Thomas Woodrow
as much as he could during the Civil War when formal education
had all but disappeared in the South. The future president also inherited
a strong sense of morality from his father and from the Church.
- Margaret Wilson was born on April 16, 1886, and was
Woodrow and Ellen Axson Wilson's first child.
Woodrow was a cousin of Woodrow Wilson's on his mother's side. While
attending law school at the University of Virginia, young Woodrow fell
in love with Hattie and eventually proposed, although she refused.
Civil War - The American Civil War was fought from 1861 to 1865 when several
southern states seceded from the Union to form the Confederate
States of America led by President Jefferson Davis. It was the
bloodiest war in the history of the United States.
Paris Peace Conference - The Paris Peace Conference was the convention held in
France in 1918 to draft a treaty to end World War I. Over thirty
nations attended the conference and wrote the Treaty of Versailles.
Reconstructionist - Reconstruction was the North's plan to formally bring
the seceded Southern states back into the Union after the Civil
War. Reconstruction succeeded in reuniting the country, it also succeeded
in further destroying the economy of the South.
World War I - Also known as the Great War, World War I was fought between 1914
and 1918 between the Entente powers or Allies (Britain, France,
and for a time, Russia) and the Central powers (Germany, the Austro-Hungarian
Empire, and the Ottoman Empire). The United States entered the
war in 1917 to assist the Allies against the Central powers.