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Introduction to Chemical Solutions

Terms

Summary and Introduction

How to Cite This SparkNote

Colligative Property  -  A property that depends only on the number of solute molecules in a solution and not the identity of the solute.
Concentration  -  The amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solvent.
Henry's Law  -  The solubility of a gas in a solvent is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the solvent.
Mass Percent  -  The number of grams of solute divided by the number of grams of solution multiplied by 100%.
Molar Equivalent  -  The number of molar equivalents depends on the reaction of interest. For an acid-base reaction the number of equivalents is the number of moles of acid or base needed to fully neutralize the solute of interest. Sulfuric acid is a diprotic acid, therefore, 1 mole of sulfuric acid is 2 molar equivalents. For a redox reaction, the number of molar equivalents is the number of moles of electrons that one mole of the solute can either donate or accept in the particular redox reaction of interest.
Molality  -  The number of moles of solute divided by the number of kilograms of solvent.
Molarity  -  The number of moles of solute divided by the number of liters of solution.
Mole Fraction  -  The number of moles of solute divided by the total number of moles in solution.
Non-polar  -  A molecule with a low net dipole.
Normality  -  The number of molar equivalents of solute divided by the number of liters of solvent.
Polar  -  A molecule with a large net dipole.
Solubility  -  The amount of a particular solute that can dissolve in a given amount of a particular solvent. Solubilities are generally listed in g / L.
Solute  -  A minor component of a solution.
Solution  -  A homogeneous mixture.
Solvent  -  The major component of a solution.

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