An operator is a special symbol that performs an action with one or more
variables. Examples are the addition operator +, the extraction operator
>>, and the not-equals logic operator !=.
The basic C++ input command, defined in the iostream.h header file. cin
asks the user of the program to enter a value for some specified variable.
If-statements, or if/else statements, are lines of code that decide whether or
not a piece of code should be executed, based on a test condition.
A test condition is a boolean expression that is usually used to branch the
execution of the program.
A switch-statement is a statement that performs different actions based on the
value of a variable.
The break keyword is used to immediately exit from a loop or a switch
A loop is a fragment of code that is repeated until a specified condition does
The default keyword is used to provide code to a switch statement that is
executed if none of the other cases are matched.