A variable that holds an address, or location in memory.
A location in the computer's memory.
Pass by Value
The process by which a function receives a copy of a variable; the variable's value in the
caller cannot be changed by the called function.
Pass by Reference
Passing by reference means passing a variable's address to a function. By defining a
function that accepts pointers, one gains the ability to change the parameter's value
in the calling function (ie. outside the scope of the current function).
A struct is a structure that groups together related variables, thus forming a new data
A special pointer value that indicates that the pointer does not refer to a valid
location in memory.
The new operator tells the C++ compiler to allocate a space in memory that will host
the specified variable type.
The delete operator frees memory allocated with new.
is a basic data structure with a fixed number of elements.
Arrays allow fast access to their elements using bracket notation.
The index of an array element is the element's number in the array. Indices begin
at 0, so an array of size n will have indices from 0 to n - 1.
An element of an array is one of the values that the array holds.