Arguments are the data a function takes as input. For example, if I were to
call a function steve(name, age) where name was declared as
char *name and age were declared as int age, name and
age would be the arguments to the function steve.
Bubble Sort Algorithm
A basic sorting algorithm used to put data in order where the larger data
elements bubble up to the top, giving the algorithm its name. For more
information on sorting, please refer to the SparkNote
on the subject.
A cast is a conversion from one data type to another. There are two types
of casts: explicit and implicit. Explicit casts are ones done because the
programmer has said to do so. For example, in the code
steve = (int) spark;
the character variable spark
is being cast to an integer before being
stored into the variable steve
. Implicit casts, on the other hand, are
done without programmer intervention because the computer assumes that the
cast needs to be made. For example, in the following code
steve = spark;
an implicit cast is performed to convert the character spark
before the copy operation can be performed.
When an application needs more memory while it is running, it can ask the
operating system for access to however much it requires. This process
is known as dynamic memory allocation.
When an error occurs in a program, the program needs to be able to handle
the situation and resolve the problem in a reasonable manner. In order for
the program to know how to handle dangerous situations (such as when it asks
the operating system for more memory and for some reason the operating system
cannot comply), the programmer has to tell it how to detect these errors,
a process known as error detection.
Passing by Reference
When data is passed into a function as arguments, the function actually
receives a copy of the original data, not the original data itself. Thus,
if the function makes any changes to the data passed into it, the original
data remains unaffected. In order for a function to be able to modify the
arguments passed to it, the data needs to be passed by reference, meaning
that instead of passing in a copy of the data, a pointer to the data is
passed. The function can then modify what the data at the addresses given
to it, resulting in the original variables being modified.
Static memory is memory given to a program in order to house variables the
program has declared.