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Contents

Digestion

Terms List and Analysis

Summary and Introduction

Anatomy

Abdominal cavity  -  One of the major compartments of the body, the abdominal cavity houses the gastrointestinal tract.
Absorption  -  The stage of digestion during which nutrients are transported into the blood stream.
Active Transport  -  The mechanism of transport during absorption that requires an electrochemical gradient and energy to transport nutrients into the blood stream.
Amylase  -  An enzyme produced by the pancreas that is responsible for the degradation of carbohydrates.
Assimilation  -  The stage of digestion during which nutrients are delivered to the rest of the body.
Bicarbonate  -  A basic electrolyte that is produced by the exocrine pancreas, bicarbonateaids in maintaining neutrality in the small intestine.
Brush Border Membrane  -  The highly specialized invaginated mucosa of the small intestine that is responsible for the absorption of many nutrients.
Cecum  -  The dilated entrance to the colon.
Cephalic Phase  -  The first phase of gastric acid secretion whereby gastric acid is secreted in response to chewing.
Chyme  -  The result of mixing food bolus with acid in the stomach.
Colon  -  The large intestine.
Diffusion  -  The process of absorption occurring across a gradient that does not require energy.
Digestion  -  The process by which large food particles are broken down into nutrients through mechanical and chemical degradation.
Duodenum  -  The first portion of the small intestine.
Electrolytes  -  Anions and cations found in the blood stream.
Elimination  -  The stage of digestion whereby waste products are eliminated.
Enzymes  -  Molecules responsible for breaking down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
Epithelium  -  The layer of cells that lines the intestine.
Gastric Phase  -  The phase of gastric acid secretion that is stimulated by distension of the stomach by food in the stomach.
Ileum  -  The third portion of the small intestine.
Intestinal Phase  -  The phase of gastric acid secretion that is stimulated by protein in the small intestine.
Jejunum  -  The second portion of the small intestine.
Lipase  -  An enzyme produced by the pancreas responsible for the digestion of fats.
Lymphatics  -  The series of connections of vessels that transport cells of the immune system throughout the body.
Mass Movements  -  The peristaltic contractions that occur in response to a food bolus or stool.
Micelle  -  A complex molecule made in the liver that aids in transporting fat degradation products into the blood stream.
Migrating Motor Complex  -  The peristaltic contractions that occur constantly throughout the digestive tract.
Mucosa  -  The lining of the intestinal lumen.
Muscularis Externa  -  The middle layer of the intestinal tract.
Nutrients  -  The final products of digestion that are absorbed into the blood stream.
Passive Transport  -  The mechanism of transport of nutrients into the blood stream that requires a gradient or carrier molecule.
Pepsin  -  An enzyme produced in the stomach responsible for protein degradation.
Peristalsis  -  The squeezing mechanism of the gastrointestinal tract that keeps the contents of the lumen in constant motion from the mouth to the anus.
Salivary Amylase  -  The enzyme produced by the salivary glands responsible for starch degradation.
Secretion  -  The stage of digestion during which materials needed for digestion are released into the lumen of the intestine.
Serosa  -  The outer layer of the intestinal tract.
Sphincter  -  A specialized circular muscle that serves a gate-keeping function that prevents the free passage of material.
Thoracic Cavity  -  The compartment of the body containing the heart, lungs, and mediastinum.

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