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Contents

Fat Soluble Vitamins

Terms for Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Introduction of Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin A

Alopecia  -  The absence of hair; balding.
Anemia  -  A reduction of the pigment hemoglobin which carries oxygen in the blood. It results in excessive tiredness, pallor and susceptibility to infection.
Antigens  -  Any substance, usually a protein, that the body regards as foreign or potentially dangerous.
Ataxia  -  Shaky movements and unsteady gait resulting from the brain's failure to regulate body posture.
Bile  -  A fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It enters the duodenum intermittently via the common bile duct. Bile salts help emulsify fat so they can be easier to digest by pancreatic lipase (an enzyme) into fatty acids and glycerol.
Catabolism  -  The chemical decomposition of complex substances in the body to form simpler ones, releasing energy.
Celiac disease  -  A disease of the small intestine due to sensitivity to the protein gliadin--found in the gluten of wheat germ--causing malabsorption.
Cell-mediated immunity  -  An immune response that is mediated by cells called T lymphocytes.
Chylomicrons  -  A microscopic particle of fat in the blood present after fat has been digested and absorbed from the small intestine.
Crohn's disease  -  A condition in which part of the gastrointestinal tract is inflamed. It usually occurs in the ileum, although may occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract, from esophagus to rectum. The cause is unknown, but is thought to be an infectious agent.
Desquamation  -  The process of removal of the outer layer of the epidermis of skin by scaling.
Diplopia  -  Double vision--the simultaneous awareness of two images from one object. It is usually due to limited movement of one eye caused by a defect of the nerves or muscles controlling eye movement.
Enzyme  -  A substance that catalyzes a biological reaction. Enzymes bind with a substance and convert it to another substance.
Epiphyses  -  The end of a long bone initially separated by cartilage from the shaft diaphysis of the bone and developing separately. It eventually connects with the diaphysis to form the complete bone.
Epithelial  -  Describing the tissue that covers the external surface of the body that lines hollow structures.
Fibrin  -  The final product of blood coagulation that is produced by the enzyme thrombin acting on a precursor fibrinogen. Fibrin links to similar molecules resulting in the fibrous structure of a blood clot, which seals off damaged blood vessels.
Hematuria  -  The presence of blood in the urine.
Humoral immunity  -  An immune response that is mediated by antibodies, which are molecules in the blood responsible for specific recognition and elimination of antigens.
Hyperlipidemia  -  The presence of a high concentration of fats and phospholipids in the blood.
Hyperparathyroidism  -  Overactivity of the parathyroid glands.
Hypoprothrombinemia  -  A deficiency of the clotting factor prothrombin in the blood resulting in an increased tendency to bleed.
Keratinization  -  The deposition of keratin in cells occurring in the epidermis of the skin and structures in nails and hair. The cells become flattened and lose their nuclei.
Lipoproteins  -  Proteins found in blood plasma and lymph that are combined with fats and other lipids.
Lymph  -  A fluid in the vessels of the lymphatic system that carries electrolytes, proteins, and other substances from tissues to the bloodstream. It consists primarily of lymphocytes.
Macrophages  -  A scavenger cell found in connective tissue, bone marrow, spleen, liver, and central nervous system.
Menorrhagia  -  Abnormal heavy bleeding at menstruation.
Micrograms  -  A unit of measure: one millionth of a gram. The abbreviation is mcg or ?g.
Milligrams  -  A unit of measure: one thousandth of a gram. The abbreviation is mg.
Osteomalacia  -  A defect in bone mineralization due to a vitamin D deficiency; the result is a that causes a softening of the bones.
Osteoporosis  -  A condition in which there is a loss of tissue in the bone resulting in brittle and easily fractured bones.
Pancreatitis  -  Inflammation of the pancreas
Peripheral neuropathy  -  A disease of the peripheral nerves that causes weakness and numbness in the extremities.
Phospholipids  -  Lipids containing a phosphate group. Phospholipids are synthesized in the liver and small intestine and play a role in many metabolic processes.
Xerophthalmia  -  A progressive disease of the eye due to deficiency of vitamin A. The corneal and conjunctiva become dry and thickened. It may lead to blindness.
Retinopathy  -  A disorder of the retina of the eye that results in impairment or loss of vision.
Steatorrhea  -  The passage of high amounts of fat in the feces due to malabsorption of fat by the intestine.
Teratogenic  -  Describing a process that results in abnormality of the fetus.

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