A blood protein that is synthesized in lymphoid tissue in response to a foreign
substance called an antigen. Antibodies circulate in the plasma to attack
An essential fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the body but can be
synthesized by linoleic acid in the body.
Pain in the joint without swelling.
The shaky movements and unsteady gait that results from the brain's failure to
regulate the body's posture and limb movements.
A state of loss of muscle elasticity.
An amino acid that carries free fatty acids into cell mitochondria to be used
Describes the chemical decomposition of complex substances in the body to form
simpler ones, releasing energy.
The chemical decomposition of complex substances in the body to form simpler
ones, releasing energy.
Citric acid cycle
A complex cycle of reactions catalyzed by enzymes occurring in cells. In the
presence of oxygen, acetate is broken down to produce energy in the form of
adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and carbon dioxide. The cycle is the final step
in the oxidation of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
A non-protein organic compound that has a role in the reaction catalyzed by an
enzyme. Coenzymes frequently contain the B vitamins.
A protein that is the primary substance in white fibrous connective tissue. It
is also found in skin, bone, cartilage, and ligaments.
A jelly-like substance that surrounds the nucleus of cells.
A process that occurs in the liver during the metabolism of amino acids. The
amino group (-NH2) is removed from an amino acid and converted to ammonia, which
is ultimately converted to urea and excreted.
A key reaction in cell metabolism involving the removal of a carboxyl group (-
A process in which substances move from an area of higher concentration to an
area of lower concentration in a fluid.
Excessive accumulation of fluids in the body resulting in swelling.
A protein that is the primary substance of elastic tissue, which is found in the
dermis of the skin.
A glycoprotein that acts as a host defense mechanism. On the cell surface
it induces protein linkage, important in the formation of new epithelium in
wound healing. It is also involved in platelet aggregation.
The process of synthesizing glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino
acids. This process occurs in the liver and kidneys.
A form of glycerol, a clear liquid that is obtained by hydrolysis of fats.
A group of proteins with varying carbohydrate components that have similar
Describing a substance that is not stable in heat.
The production of blood cells and platelets occurring in the bone marrow.
A substance in the plasma that is involved in methionine metabolism. Recent
research suggests that high homocysteine levels may be a risk factor for
coronary artery disease.
A condition in which there is a high concentration of fats in the blood.
A protein that acts as an antibody. There are five classes of
immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD,
IgE, IgG, and IgM.
A protein that stimulates the immune system by stimulation of T-lymphocytes.
A yellowing of the skin or eyes indicating excess bilirubin (a bile pigment) in
One of the unsaturated fatty acids that are essential for growth but cannot be
synthesized by the body. Linoleic acid is mainly found in corn and soybean oil.
The process of conversion of glucose from dietary carbohydrate to fatty acids in
A type of white blood cell involved in the immune system. B-lymphocytes produce
antibodies, and T-lymphocytes are responsible for cell-mediated immunity.
A sulfer-containing essential amino acid.
Lipid membrane covering the shafts of nerve cells, serving as a protector and
A term used to describe the type of iron that is not from blood.
The cavity containing the abdomen.
A condition caused by the absence of the intrinsic factor normally present in
gastric juice, which is needed for vitamin B12 absorption.
Itching caused by irritation or nervous disorders.
A nitrogen-containing compound with a two-ring molecular structure. Adenine and
guanine are purines that form nucleotides of nucleic acids.
A compound derived from carbohydrates that may be oxidized by a complex series
of reactions in the Krebs' cycle to yield carbon dioxide and energy in the
form of ATP.
In glucose oxidation, the transfer of the first two-carbon group from one sugar
An allergic reaction caused by the release of histidine, causing large red
wheals on the skin.