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Water Soluble Vitamins

Terms for Water-Soluble Vitamins

Introduction of Water-Soluble Vitamins


Antibody  -  A blood protein that is synthesized in lymphoid tissue in response to a foreign substance called an antigen. Antibodies circulate in the plasma to attack antigens.
Arachidonic acid  -  An essential fatty acid that cannot be synthesized by the body but can be synthesized by linoleic acid in the body.
Arthralgia  -  Pain in the joint without swelling.
Ataxia  -  The shaky movements and unsteady gait that results from the brain's failure to regulate the body's posture and limb movements.
Atony  -  A state of loss of muscle elasticity.
Carnitine  -  An amino acid that carries free fatty acids into cell mitochondria to be used for energy.
Catabolic  -  Describes the chemical decomposition of complex substances in the body to form simpler ones, releasing energy.
Catabolism  -  The chemical decomposition of complex substances in the body to form simpler ones, releasing energy.
Citric acid cycle  -  A complex cycle of reactions catalyzed by enzymes occurring in cells. In the presence of oxygen, acetate is broken down to produce energy in the form of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and carbon dioxide. The cycle is the final step in the oxidation of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Coenzyme  -  A non-protein organic compound that has a role in the reaction catalyzed by an enzyme. Coenzymes frequently contain the B vitamins.
Collagen  -  A protein that is the primary substance in white fibrous connective tissue. It is also found in skin, bone, cartilage, and ligaments.
Cytoplasm  -  A jelly-like substance that surrounds the nucleus of cells.
Deamination  -  A process that occurs in the liver during the metabolism of amino acids. The amino group (-NH2) is removed from an amino acid and converted to ammonia, which is ultimately converted to urea and excreted.
Decarboxylation  -  A key reaction in cell metabolism involving the removal of a carboxyl group (- COOH).
Diffusion  -  A process in which substances move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration in a fluid.
Edema  -  Excessive accumulation of fluids in the body resulting in swelling.
Elastin  -  A protein that is the primary substance of elastic tissue, which is found in the dermis of the skin.
Fibronectin  -  A glycoprotein that acts as a host defense mechanism. On the cell surface it induces protein linkage, important in the formation of new epithelium in wound healing. It is also involved in platelet aggregation.
Gluconeogenesis  -  The process of synthesizing glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids. This process occurs in the liver and kidneys.
Glyceraldehyde  -  A form of glycerol, a clear liquid that is obtained by hydrolysis of fats.
Glycoproteins  -  A group of proteins with varying carbohydrate components that have similar antigenic properties.
Heat-labile  -  Describing a substance that is not stable in heat.
Hematopoiesis  -  The production of blood cells and platelets occurring in the bone marrow.
Homocysteine  -  A substance in the plasma that is involved in methionine metabolism. Recent research suggests that high homocysteine levels may be a risk factor for coronary artery disease.
Hyperlipidemia  -  A condition in which there is a high concentration of fats in the blood.
Immunoglobulin  -  A protein that acts as an antibody. There are five classes of immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM.
Interleukin-2  -  A protein that stimulates the immune system by stimulation of T-lymphocytes.
Jaundice  -  A yellowing of the skin or eyes indicating excess bilirubin (a bile pigment) in the blood.
Linoleic acid  -  One of the unsaturated fatty acids that are essential for growth but cannot be synthesized by the body. Linoleic acid is mainly found in corn and soybean oil.
Lipogenesis  -  The process of conversion of glucose from dietary carbohydrate to fatty acids in the body.
Lymphocyte  -  A type of white blood cell involved in the immune system. B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, and T-lymphocytes are responsible for cell-mediated immunity.
Methionine  -  A sulfer-containing essential amino acid.
Myelin sheath  -  Lipid membrane covering the shafts of nerve cells, serving as a protector and insulator.
Nonheme  -  A term used to describe the type of iron that is not from blood.
Peritoneal cavity  -  The cavity containing the abdomen.
Pernicious anemia  -  A condition caused by the absence of the intrinsic factor normally present in gastric juice, which is needed for vitamin B12 absorption.
Pruritus  -  Itching caused by irritation or nervous disorders.
Purine  -  A nitrogen-containing compound with a two-ring molecular structure. Adenine and guanine are purines that form nucleotides of nucleic acids.
Pyruvate  -  A compound derived from carbohydrates that may be oxidized by a complex series of reactions in the Krebs' cycle to yield carbon dioxide and energy in the form of ATP.
Transketolation  -  In glucose oxidation, the transfer of the first two-carbon group from one sugar to another.
Urticaria  -  An allergic reaction caused by the release of histidine, causing large red wheals on the skin.

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