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LaFeber, Walter. The New Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion 1860-1898. Cornell, NY: Cornell UP: 1967.
May, Ernest. American Imperialism: A Speculative Essay. Chicago: Imprint Publications, 1991.
Traxel, David. 1898: The Birth of the American Century. New York: Vintage Books, 1999.
Williams, William Appleman. The Tragedy of American Diplomacy. New York: W.W. Norton and Co.: 1988.
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