full title · Changes: a Love Story
author · Ama Ata Aidoo
type of work · Novel
genre · Postcolonial novel; women’s literature; African literature
language · English
time and place written · Late 20th Century; Accra, Ghana
date of first publication · 1991
publisher · The Feminist Press
narrator · Changes is narrated by a third person omniscient narrator
point of view · The narrator of the novel speaks in the third person and frequently moves from one character of the next. The narrator describes not only the actions but also the thoughts and feelings of each character.
tone · The narrative tone of the novel is both empathetic and critical.
tense · The narrative is told exclusively in the past tense.
setting (time) · The narrative is told over the course of several years, beginning with Esi’s decision to divorce her first husband and concluding with the collapse of her second marriage.
setting (place) · The narrative takes place in contemporary Accra, Ghana.
protagonist · Esi Sekyi
major conflict · Esi’s troubled marriage with her second husband, Ali Kondey
rising action · The start of Ali and Esi’s affair
climax · Ali’s proposal to Esi
falling action · The wedding ceremony between Ali and Esi
themes · Modern versus traditional; changes; education
motifs · Travel; proverbs; friendship
symbols · The car; the wedding band; professions
foreshadowing · Ali’s frequent absence from Esi’s life and his decision to take her as a second wife foreshadow his future betrayal of her.
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