Search Menu


Kurt Vonnegut


Study Questions & Essay Topics

Study Questions & Essay Topics

Study Questions & Essay Topics

Study Questions & Essay Topics

Study Questions & Essay Topics

Study Questions & Essay Topics

Study Questions


What is the relationship between the structure and the content of Slaughterhouse-Five?

The novel’s random, skipping timeline presents an effective method of representing one man’s inability to live a normal life after experiencing modern warfare. The disjointed collage of Billy Pilgrim’s life gets translated directly to the disjointed collage of the narrative. We experience Billy’s life as he does, without suspense or logical order, randomly orbiting about the firebombing of Dresden.

A traditional novel might start with a youthful Billy Pilgrim and follow him into old age or with an elderly protagonist who flashes back on his life. Billy, however, adopts a Tralfamadorian attitude because it is the only way he can make sense of the loose grip on time he is left with after the war. In order to follow him, the narrative approximates the same attitude. A Tralfamadorian novel, as discussed in Chapter 5, contains urgent, discrete messages describing scenes and situations. The author of such a novel carefully chooses the messages so that, when seen all at once, they form a profound image of life. Otherwise, there is no obvious relationship among them—there is no beginning, middle, climax, or end.

Humans, of course, cannot perceive all the elements of a novel at the same time. We can only approximate this effect like we approximate motion on film—with quick snapshots shown in rapid succession. Showing the snapshots in chronological order yields a traditional linear narrative; shuffling them up yields the closest approximation of a Tralfamadorian whole. Vonnegut entrusts his long-in-the-making Dresden book to a Tralfamadorian template in the hopes that it will produce something profound and beautiful from the memories of a massacre.


Briefly discuss some of the consequences of a Tralfamadorian view of the universe for a human.

The Tralfamadorians see all of time simultaneously. They know what has happened and what will happen and are able to focus on the nice moments. Things always happen the way they do because of how moments are structured, and no one can do anything to change the future. In fact, the concept of change is difficult for a Tralfamadorian to grasp. To them, free will is just a bizarre fiction discussed on Earth, where people cannot see in four dimensions. All time is fixed, but each moment is always accessible to Tralfamadorians, so they can pick and choose what they want to experience. Each moment essentially exists forever.

Without free will, there seems to be no accountability. There is also no time wasted in blame and punishment. Billy does not blame anyone for what he sees in Dresden, for what he experiences in the war, or for the death of his wife. He simply accepts that things happen as they happen.

There also seems to be no incentive to live one’s life well (according to whatever definition one might have of living well). As long as every life has a few good moments, the time traveler can eternally visit those and be eternally content. However, judging from Billy’s experiences, humans do not seem as able to control time travel or remember with the same selectivity as Tralfamadorians. Billy has no say in his comings and goings through time. Thus, he relives atrocity and horror as much as he relives moments of happiness. If atrocities also last forever to be eternally relived, perhaps there is incentive not to act atrociously after all.


How does Vonnegut’s technique of time-shifting affect our understanding of the novel? Is there an advantage to structuring Slaughterhouse-Five in the “telegraphic schizophrenic manner”? If not, is it too random to allow a cohesive, linear story to emerge?

A linear story does emerge out of the jumble of time-shifted details in the novel: the story of Billy Pilgrim, POW, making his way through time and across the European theater of World War II toward Dresden, the scene of ultimate destruction. Every time we return to this thread of the narrative, it unfolds in chronological order. Interspersed in this order are wild zigzags forward and backward through Billy’s life. These time jumps might be confusing, but they give force to the horror we encounter along the way. Vonnegut feeds the novel’s emotional momentum with the transitions between time jumps. For example, in Chapter 3 Billy is transported from his bed in Ilium, where he weeps after seeing cripples in the street, to the POW march in Luxembourg, where he weeps because of the wind in his eyes. Such transitions take the place of traditional narrative devices such as foreshadowing. Vonnegut gives away the climax he had been considering for his grand narrative (Edgar Derby’s execution) in Chapter 1; when we finally get to the telling of it, at the end of Chapter 10, it comes as an afterthought.

In addition, the novel might be schizophrenic, but it is not random. On the one hand, death strikes indiscriminately, and we never know who the next victim will be. But, on the other hand, the sheer volume of seemingly random deaths adds up to an emotional weight like that of the Tralfamadorian novel described in Chapter 5.

Suggested Essay Topics

1. Many Vonnegut novels deal with traffickers of “useful lies.” Are the lessons of Tralfamadore useful lies? Why or why not?

2. Is Billy Pilgrim sane or insane? Does it matter?

3. Discuss the use of irony or black humor in Slaughterhouse-Five.

4. What does Vonnegut achieve by placing himself as a character in the story?

More Help

Previous Next
A few observations on Slaughterhouse Five

by Akumeoi, November 04, 2012

Some things that are significant about this book (in my view) that were not mentioned in the SparkNote are this:
Billy Pilgrim's last name
A religious connection in the book
The colour of his feet again
As to the first, I think that since 'Billy' was obviously chosen with care, 'Pilgrim' was too. Pilgrim could refer to his otherworldly journey through time, although it's uncertain what he would be making a pilgrimage too - possibly death. Or, it could just be his journey through the war.
As to the religious impl... Read more


688 out of 726 people found this helpful

Where in the book is that

by mackeller, April 04, 2013

Do you know where in the book the christianity references are? The chapter might be more helpful because the pages are probably different.


1 out of 4 people found this helpful

An alternative explanation for Billy's "travels"

by almostpassingenglish, August 18, 2013

I think that BIlly Pilgrim's journeys through time could instead be a social commentary on Post-Traumatic Stress disorder. Billy isn't skipping through time, instead he's an old man sitting at his home, his daughter is taking care of him, and when he closes his eyes he suffers his wartime flashbacks and delusions about traveling through space in which he lives in a dream with elements from his life, like how Montana Wildhack was the Porn Star from the book store that Billy visited to see the Kilgore Trout novels. It also explains why the boo


63 out of 66 people found this helpful

See all 7 readers' notes   →