Trotula of Salerno (11th Century)
The legendary physician Trotula rose to fame in the cosmopolitan town of Salerno. Not content with watch her gender misdiagnosed by male doctors, Trotula wrote voluminous tomes about women's health. She gained notoriety for discovering that men, too, could be infertile (conception problems had been typically blamed on women... surprise, surprise) and argued that women should be administered opiates during painful childbirth (duh-doi!). Her work was the standard by which doctors operated for centuries afterwards.