The Piltdown Man
Since we're on a fraud kick, we may as well throw in the most notorious paleontological hoax of all time. Around 1912, an unusual hominid skull was discovered in Piltdown, England. The specimen was believed to be the remains bizarre early human ancestor. Decades later, this "missing link" was proved to be nothing more than an orangutan jaw grafted onto a human skull. It makes you wonder what kind of weirdo would bury a fake skull, just to mess with evolutionary biologists. Probably a time-traveling Bernie Madoff. (Let's just blame everything on him from now on).