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The Republic

Plato

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Full Bibliographic Citation

MLA

SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on The Republic.” SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC. 2002. Web. 30 Apr. 2015.

The Chicago Manual of Style

SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on The Republic.” SparkNotes LLC. 2002. http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/republic/ (accessed April 30, 2015).

APA

SparkNotes Editors. (2002). SparkNote on The Republic. Retrieved April 30, 2015, from http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/republic/

In Text Citation

MLA

“Their conversation is awkward, especially when she mentions Wickham, a subject Darcy clearly wishes to avoid” (SparkNotes Editors).

APA

“Their conversation is awkward, especially when she mentions Wickham, a subject Darcy clearly wishes to avoid” (SparkNotes Editors, 2002).

Footnote

The Chicago Manual of Style

Chicago requires the use of footnotes, rather than parenthetical citations, in conjunction with a list of works cited when dealing with literature.

1 SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on The Republic.” SparkNotes LLC. 2002. http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/republic/ (accessed April 30, 2015).


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"Understanding" is Wrong Term

by JohnUebersax, August 28, 2014

The definitions on this list are mostly helpful, but the term "Understanding" is incorrect and misleading. The highest grade of cognitive activity in Plato's fourfold epistemological scheme is, in Greek, "noesis." In English this should be called Intellection, Higher Reason, or simply Noesis. To call it Understanding badly confuses things because of the myriad unrelated meanings and senses of "understanding" in English.

Reason

by JohnUebersax, August 29, 2014

Similarly, what the list above calls "Reason" would be better termed ratiocination, calculation, reasoning, or lower reason. To simply call this faculty Reason confounds two distinct faculties: ratiocination (dianoia) and Higher Reason (nous or Nous). Ratiocination is somewhat like the ability that animals have to think and plan. It is the Higher Reason that is associated with mans immortal soul, and on which basis, according to Plato, man may attain "likeness to God insofar as possible."

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