According to Piaget, schema are mental models that represent the world.
According to Piaget, a three-year-old isn’t capable of conservation. Conservation is the ability to recognize that measurable physical features of objects can remain the same even when objects look different.
Critics of Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning maintain two arguments: (1) people often show reasoning that’s characteristic of more than one level simultaneously, and (2) Kohlberg’s theory is biased toward cultures that value individualism over community.
Through their study with monkeys, the Harlows showed that caregivers must provide contact comfort as well as food and warmth to encourage attachment in infants.
Sex refers to a biological distinction between males and females, whereas gender refers to a learned distinction between masculinity and femininity.