The Structure of Language
Language is a system of symbols and rules that is used for
meaningful communication. A system of communication has to meet certain criteria in
order to be considered a language:
- A language uses symbols, which are sounds, gestures, or
written characters that represent objects, actions, events, and ideas. Symbols
enable people to refer to objects that are in another place or events that
occurred at a different time.
- A language is meaningful and therefore can be understood by other users of
- A language is generative, which means that the symbols of a
language can be combined to produce an infinite number of messages.
- A language has rules that govern how symbols can be arranged.
These rules allow people to understand messages in that language even if
they have never encountered those messages before.
The Building Blocks of Language
Language is organized hierarchically, from phonemes to morphemes to
phrases and sentences that communicate meaning.
Phonemes are the smallest distinguishable units in a
language. In the English language, many consonants, such as t, p, and m, correspond
to single phonemes, while other consonants, such as c and g, can correspond to more than one phoneme. Vowels
typically correspond to more than one phoneme. For example, o corresponds to different phonemes depending on whether it
is pronounced as in bone or woman. Some
phonemes correspond to combinations of consonants, such as ch, sh, and th.
Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units in a
language. In the English language, only a few single letters, such as I and a, are morphemes. Morphemes are
usually whole words or meaningful parts of words, such as prefixes,
suffixes, and word stems.
Example: The word “disliked” has three morphemes: “dis,”
“lik,” and “ed.”
Syntax is a system of rules that governs how words can be
meaningfully arranged to form phrases and sentences.
Example: One rule of syntax is that an article such as “the”
must come before a noun, not after: “Read the book,” not
“Read book the.”
Language Development in Children
Children develop language in a set sequence of stages, although sometimes
particular skills develop at slightly different ages:
- Three-month-old infants can distinguish between the phonemes from any
- At around six months, infants begin babbling, or
producing sounds that resemble many different languages. As time goes on,
these sounds begin to resemble more closely the words of the languages the
- At about thirteen months, children begin to produce simple single
- By about twenty-four months, children begin to combine two or three
words to make short sentences. At this stage, their speech is usually
telegraphic. Telegraphic speech, like telegrams, contains no
articles or prepositions.
- By about age three years, children can usually use tenses and plurals.
- Children’s language abilities continue to grow throughout the
school-age years. They become able to recognize ambiguity and sarcasm in
language and to use metaphors and puns. These abilities arise from metalinguistic awareness, or the capacity to think about
how language is used.