Reinforcement is delivery of a consequence that increases the likelihood that a certain response will occur. Punishment is delivery of a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a certain consequence will occur.
Variable schedules of reinforcement produce responses that resist extinction.
Sara has always felt calm and relaxed when listening to classical music. Lately, she’s been lighting a candle just before she listens to classical music. Now she doesn’t even need the classical music to feel relaxed. She can just light a candle. Unconditioned stimulus = classical music; unconditioned response = relaxation; conditioned stimulus = lit candle; conditioned response = relaxation.
Observational learning is also called vicarious learning because it involves learning by seeing others acquire responses through classical or operant conditioning.
Extinction; conditioned; unconditioned stimulus.