Good scientific research must have precise hypotheses, replicability, falsifiable theories and hypotheses, and parsimonious explanations.
Sampling bias is a type of error that occurs when a sample isn’t representative of the population from which it is drawn.
Self-report data can be misleading. People sometimes intentionally lie, give answers based on wishful thinking, don’t understand the questions asked, or don’t remember information.
We cannot draw cause-and-effect conclusions about correlative data because one factor can be related to another factor without causing it.
If a result is statistically significant, it is probably not due to chance.