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A prejudice is a negative belief or feeling about a particular group of individuals. Prejudices are often passed on from one generation to the next.
Prejudice is a destructive phenomenon, and it is pervasive because it serves many psychological, social, and economic functions:
Example: Rachel’s parents came from a working-class background but are now wealthy business owners. Rachel might develop a dislike of the working class because she does not want to be identified with working-class people. She believes such an association would damage her claim to upper-class social status.
Example: Glen blames his unemployment on foreign nationals whom he believes are incompetent but willing to work for low wages.
Example: A poor white farmer in the nineteenth-century South could feel better about his own meager existence by insisting on his superiority to African-American slaves.
Example: Most religious and ethnic groups maintain some prejudices against other groups, which help to make their own group seem more special.
Example: Pseudoscientific arguments about the mental inferiority of African Americans allowed whites to feel justified in owning slaves.
Researchers find it difficult to measure prejudice. One reason for this is that people differ in the type and extent of prejudice they harbor. For example, a person who makes demeaning comments about a particular ethnic group may be bigoted or just ignorant. Also, people often do not admit to being prejudiced.
People may often have implicit unconscious prejudices even when they do not have explicit prejudices. Researchers assess implicit prejudice in three ways:
People’s social identities depend on the groups they belong to. From a person’s perspective, any group he belongs to is an ingroup, and any group he doesn’t belong to is an outgroup. People generally have a lower opinion of outgroup members and a higher opinion of members of their own group. People who identify strongly with a particular group are more likely to be prejudiced against people in competing outgroups.
People tend to think that their own groups are composed of different sorts of people. At the same time, they often think that everyone in an outgroup is the same. According to the contact hypothesis, prejudice declines when people in an ingroup become more familiar with the customs, norms, food, music, and attitudes of people in an outgroup. Contact with the outgroup helps people to see the diversity among its members.
Research shows that prejudice and conflict among groups can be reduced if four conditions are met:
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