


Energy, Power, and Heat
As a charge carrier moves around a circuit and drops an
amount of potential, V, in time t,
it loses an amount of potential energy, qV.
The power, or the rate at which it loses energy, is qV/t.
Since the current, I, is equal to q/t,
the power can be expressed as:
The unit of power is the watt (W).
As you learned in Chapter 4, one watt is equal to one joule per
second.
VIR and PIV Triangles
Ohm’s Law and the formula for power express fundamental
relationships between power, current, and voltage, and between voltage,
current, and resistance. On occasion, you may be asked to calculate
any one of the three variables in these equations, given the other
two. As a result, good mnemonics to remember are the VIR
and PIV triangles:
If the two variables you know are across from one another,
then multiplying them will get you the third. If the two variables
you know are above and below one another, then you can get the third
variable by dividing the one above by the one below. For instance,
if you know the power and the voltage in a given circuit, you can
calculate the current by dividing the power by the voltage.
Power and Resistance
We can combine the equations for power and Ohm’s Law to
get expressions for power in terms of resistance:
Heat
As current flows through a resistor, the resistor heats
up. The heat in joules is given by:
where t is the time in seconds.
In other words, a resistor heats up more when there is a high current
running through a strong resistor over a long stretch of time.
Example

We are being asked for the amount of heat that is dissipated,
which is the product of power and time. We have learned to express
power in terms of voltage and resistance in the formula P
= V^{2}/R.
Applying that formula to the problem at hand, we find:
Then, plugging the appropriate numbers into the equation
for heat, we find:
Every minute, the filament produces 300 J
of heat.
KilowattHours
When electric companies determine how much to charge their
clients, they measure the power output and the amount of time in
which this power was generated. Watts and seconds are relatively
small units, so they measure in kilowatthours, where one kilowatt
is equal to 1000 watts. Note that the kilowatthour,
as a measure of power multiplied by time, is a unit of energy. A
quick calculation shows that:
