1. How does federalism differ from unitary and confederal systems?
In a federal system, a national government and the state governments share power. In a unitary system, all power lies with the national government, whereas in a confederation, the vast majority of power rests with the states.
2. Describe the difference between layer-cake and marble-cake federalism.
In dual federalism, which existed through most of the nineteenth century, the powers and issue areas of state and federal governments rarely overlapped, much like a layer cake. Cooperative federalism describes federalism in much of the twentieth century, where the powers and responsibilities of the states and federal government overlap a great deal, resembling a marble cake.
3. What two historical events prompted the rise in power of the federal government?
The two key events that occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were the development of a national industrial economy and the emergence of the United States as a world power.