Summary

Chair Ride–Nagg Wakes Up

Summary Chair Ride–Nagg Wakes Up

There are several allusions to Dante's Inferno which solidify the idea of circularity. They're in a hole, and Hamm has previously mentioned the "other hell" beyond the wall. The Inferno also worked on a circular system; its nine descending circles of Hell promoted the idea that those inside would be doomed to repeat their misery for all eternity, and the whole work was based on motifs of halves, of being stuck in the middle of something. The light in Endgame has a similar purpose; neither light nor dark, it is gray, a medium shade without a definite beginning or end. It also underlines Clov's difficult position between staying and leaving. Light seems to be a symbol of hope to him (he stares at his light dying in his kitchen, and he is dismayed when he sees the lighthouse is completely sunken), but since it is half-light, he retains only enough hope to desire leaving and not enough to make himself leave.