Lipids and Coronary Heart Disease

Health
Summary

Dietary Guidelines

Summary Dietary Guidelines

The American Heart Association has released a number of guidelines for diet modification in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia. These guidelines advocate the following measures:

i) Consumption of a variety of foods ii) Avoidance of the excessive intake of calories, sugar and salt iii) Balancing of food intake with physical activity to maintain an ideal healthy weight (or the reduction of weight to achieve this goal) iv) Restriction of fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol v) Adherence a diet that includes plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole- grain foods vi) Reduction of alcohol intake to an average of 1-2 drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women.

More specifically, the "Step I" diet advocates the following goals:

i) Restriction of caloric intake to prevent obesity and maintain a desirable weight, or reduce weight in those who are overweight ii) Consumption of less than 30% of total daily caloric intake from fat iii) Consumption of approximately 8-10% of total calories from saturated fat iv) Consumption of up to 10% of total calories from polyunsaturated fatty acids v) Consumption of up to 15% of total calories from monounsaturated fatty acids vi) Consumption of 55% to 60% of calories as complex carbohydrates vii) Consumption of less than 300mg per day of cholesterol.

This diet is recommended for patients with hyperlipidemia and no coronary heart disease.

Failure to achieve the recommended lipid goals in patients with hyperlipidemia, no coronary heart disease, and two or more risk factors requires consideration of the "Step II" diet:

i) Restriction of caloric intake to prevent obesity and maintain a desirable weight, or reduce weight in those who are overweight ii) Consumption of less than 30% of total daily caloric intake from fat iii) Consumption of approximately 7% of total calories from saturated fat iv) Consumption of up to 10% of total calories from polyunsaturated fatty acids viii) Consumption of up to 15% of total calories from monounsaturated fatty acids v) Consumption of 55% to 60% of calories as complex carbohydrates. vi) Consumption of less than 200mg per day of cholesterol.

These dietary recommendations are also appropriate for all patients with hyperlipidemia and established coronary heart disease.