• 1913

    Sixteenth and Seventeenth Amendments are ratified

    Congress passes Federal Reserve Act and Underwood Tariff
  • 1914

    Panama Canal is completed

    Congress passes Clayton Anti-Trust Act, establishes Federal Trade CommissionUnited States occupies Vera Cruz, Mexico
  • 1915

    Congress passes La Follette Seaman’s Act

    United States invades Haiti
  • 1916

    Congress passes Workingmen’s Compensation Act, Federal Farm Loan Act, Warehouse Act, Adamson Act, and Jones Act

    Pancho Villa attacks New MexicoUnited States invades Dominican Republic
  • 1917

    United States buys Virgin Islands

    • Key People

    • Woodrow Wilson

      28th U.S. president; outlined New Freedom domestic policies to lower protective tariff and tame big business

    • Venustiano Carranza

      General who took power in Mexico after 1914 coup ousted revolutionary leader Victoriano Huerta

    • Pancho Villa

      Mexican rebel who tried to provoke war between the United States and Mexico in order to oust Venustiano Carranza from power

    • John J. Pershing

      General sent by Wilson to pursue Villa’s band of Mexican rebels into Mexico in 1916

    The New Freedom

    Even though Woodrow Wilson won the vast majority of electoral votes in the election of 1912, he received only 41 percent of the popular vote, ostensibly leaving him with little mandate. Despite this handicap, Wilson managed to accomplish every one of his major domestic goals on his progressive New Freedom agenda. In just four years, Wilson reduced the tariff, passed more anti-trust legislation, and reformed the banking system.

    Wilson began in 1913 by pushing Congress to pass the Underwood Tariff, which drastically reduced duties on foreign goods from an average rate of 40 percent to an average rate of 25 percent. Congress compensated for the loss of revenue by creating a national income tax under the Sixteenth Amendment, another major progressive achievement of 1913.

    Banking Reform

    Next, Wilson took on the banking industry, which despite industrialization and the population boom had remained essentially unchanged since the Civil War. In 1913, Wilson and Congress passed the Federal Reserve Act to create a decentralized national bank comprising twelve regional branches. Collectively, all the private banks in each region owned and operated that respective region’s branch. However, the new Federal Reserve Board had the final say in decisions affecting all branches, including setting interest rates and issuing currency. This new banking system helped stabilize national finances and credit and helped the financial system survive two world wars and the Great Depression.

    Other Progressive Legislation

    Wilson also continued to crack down on trusts, most notably by convincing Congress to pass the Clayton Anti-Trust Act in 1914. Unlike the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, the Clayton Anti-Trust Act actually gave lawmakers the power to punish monopolistic corporations. Furthermore, it legalized labor unions and their right to strike peacefully.

    Congress passed a wide variety of other progressive legislation during Wilson’s first term. The La Follette Seaman’s Act of 1915, for example, protected sailors’ rights and wages on merchant ships, while the Federal Farm Loan Act and the Warehouse Act of 1916 gave farmers access to easy credit. That same year, Congress also passed the Workingmen’s Compensation Act to help support temporarily disabled federal employees and the Adamson Act to establish an eight-hour workday for all employees on interstate railroads. With the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Americans won the right to elect U.S. senators directly.

    Wilson’s Foreign Policy

    In foreign affairs, Wilson flatly rejected Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy and Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy in favor of a more moralistic approach to international relations. He immediately withdrew federal support for American investors abroad and pressured Congress to give increased (but not complete) control of the Panama Canal to Panama. In 1916, he signed the Jones Act, which made the Philippines an official U.S. territory and promised Filipinos independence once they established a stable government. Wilson did, however, send troops to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba and purchased the U.S. Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917.

    Popular pages: The Gilded Age & the Progressive Era (1877–1917)