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Betts, Raymond F. The False Dawn: European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Doyle, Michael W. Empires. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Hobsbawn, Eric. The Age of Empire, 1875-1914. New York: Pantheon, 1987.

Kennan, George F. The Decline of Bismarck's European Order: Franco-Russian relations, 1875-1890. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979.

Kishlansky, Mark et al. Civilization in the West. Vol. II. New York: Longman, 1998.

Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa. New York: Random House, 1991.

Sked, Alan. The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 1815-1918. London: Longman, 1989.

Weber, Eugene. Peasants and Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1976.

Wehler, Hans-Ulrich. The German Empire, 1871-1918. Leamington Spa, England: Berg Publishers, 1985.

Popular pages: Europe 1871-1914