Beales, Derek. The Risorgimento and the Unification of Italy. London: Allen & Unwin, 1982.

Craig, Gordon A. Germany, 1866-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Smith, Dennis Mack. Cavour. London: Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1985.

Plessis, Alain. The Rise and Fall of the Second Empire, 1852-1871. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Freeze, Gregory ed. Russia: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Kishlansky, Mark et al. Civilization in the West. Vol. II. New York: Longman, 1998.

Popular pages: Europe (1848-1871)