What were some of the main differences between the processes of unification undertaken in Italy and Germany? What were some of the similarities? Is there one unifying theory or concept that was necessary to both processes?

"The Crimean War began a period of great reform in Russia, never seen before and never repeated since." Assess the validity of this statement using specific examples of reforms in Russia from 1855-1871.

Why did Camillo di Cavour succeed with his plan to unite the Italian nation while Giuseppe Garibaldi failed in his?

How could Napoleon III be described as the first modern politician? Use specific examples from the Second Empire in answering this question.

Explain, in brief, the philosophical debate ongoing between the Liberal and Conservative parties in Great Britain during the Victorian Age. Use specific examples of laws passed and changes made during the Gladstone and Disraeli governments to elaborate.

Why did Great Britain avoid some of the major uprisings that plagued Europe in 1848? What about the British situation seemed to make it immune to radical revolt?

Compare the forcible unification of the United States via Union victory in the American Civil War with the unification of the German Empire. Compare Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation with Alexander II's Emancipation Edict.

Popular pages: Europe (1848-1871)