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Dunn, John M.The Enlightenment. San Diego: Lucent Books, 1999.

Goldmann, Lucien. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1968.

Hof, Ulrich Im. The Enlightenment. Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell, 1997.

Hyland, Paul. The Enlightenment. London: Routledge, 2003.

Lively, Jack. The Enlightenment. London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1966.

Pennington, D. H.Europe in the Seventeenth Century. London: Longman Group, 1970.

Porter, Roy. The Creation of the Modern World. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000.

Porter, Roy, and Mikulás Teich. The Enlightenment in National Context. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Popular pages: The Enlightenment (1650–1800)