full title Changes: a Love Story

author Ama Ata Aidoo

type of work Novel

genre Postcolonial novel; women’s literature; African literature

language English

time and place written Late 20th Century; Accra, Ghana

date of first publication 1991

publisher The Feminist Press

narrator Changes is narrated by a third person omniscient narrator

point of view The narrator of the novel speaks in the third person and frequently moves from one character of the next. The narrator describes not only the actions but also the thoughts and feelings of each character.

tone The narrative tone of the novel is both empathetic and critical.

tense The narrative is told exclusively in the past tense.

setting (time) The narrative is told over the course of several years, beginning with Esi’s decision to divorce her first husband and concluding with the collapse of her second marriage.

setting (place) The narrative takes place in contemporary Accra, Ghana.

protagonist Esi Sekyi

major conflict Esi’s troubled marriage with her second husband, Ali Kondey

rising action The start of Ali and Esi’s affair

climax Ali’s proposal to Esi

falling action The wedding ceremony between Ali and Esi

themes Modern versus traditional; changes; education

motifs Travel; proverbs; friendship

symbols The car; the wedding band; professions

foreshadowing Ali’s frequent absence from Esi’s life and his decision to take her as a second wife foreshadow his future betrayal of her.