The fact that increasing numbers of people around the world speak the same language demonstrates the transnational trend. English has become something of an international language, but other languages (such as French, Chinese, and Russian) are also spoken by many around the world. Overall, the total number of languages spoken is decreasing, while the total number of speakers of certain dominant languages is increasing.
The second trend that marks the recession of nation-states concerns the increase in political power being given to local governments, sometimes to the point of autonomy. This trend is sometimes called devolution because states are said to devolve power back to local governments. In the United Kingdom, for example, Scotland has been granted a great deal of autonomy, as has Catalonia in Spain. Should this trend continue, local governments would replace national or central governments.
The table below summarizes the trends of globalization and devolution.
|Power flows||Outward, away from the state||Inward, down from the central government|
|Power belongs to||International organizations and transnational governments||Regional and local governments|
|Power is lost by||The state||The central government|
|Sometimes known as||Transnationalism||Subnationalism|
|Examples||The European Union, the United Nations, the World Trade Organization||New Federalism in the United States, increased Scottish autonomy in the United Kingdom, in-creased study of local and regional languages (such as Breton in France)|