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Important Terms, People, and Events

Important Terms, People, and Events

Important Terms, People, and Events

Important Terms, People, and Events

Important Terms, People, and Events

Important Terms, People, and Events


Blank Verse -   · Non-rhyming verse taking the form of iambic pentameter and used extensively in Elizabethan drama by playwrights like Marlowe and Shakespeare.
Coronation -   · The ceremony by which someone is crowned king or queen
Galleon -   · A heavy, square-rigged, sail-driven vessel favored by the Spanish in the Elizabethan period. The Spanish Armada was comprised of galleons.
Golden Hind -   · Sir Francis Drake's ship, which he sailed around the world.
Interdict -   · A form of papal censure and condemnation. An interdict strips a person or community of most sacraments and the right to Christian burial.
Privy Council -   · The private council of the English King or Queen. Today, the Privy Council exercises no real power, but in Elizabeth's era it had great control over national policy.
Spanish Armada -   · In 1588, Philip II of Spain sent this fleet to fetch his soldiers in the Netherlands and then invade England. Although it was supposed invincible, the Armada was defeated by the English navy.
Tower of London -   · This royal fortress and residence served as a jail for important political prisoners (Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots were both detained there). The tower has also guarded important items such as the Crown Jewels.


Duke de Alencon -  The fourth son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici and brother to the king of France (Francis II). He unsuccessfully courted Elizabeth. In 1576, his title changed to Duke of Anjou.
Duke of Anjou -  Known as Duke de Alencon until 1576, Anjou was the fourth son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici and brother to the king of France (Francis II). He unsuccessfully courted Elizabeth.
Francis Bacon -  Lawyer, Statesman, counselor to James I, early scientist and man of letters. Early in his career, Bacon's patron was the Earl of Essex.
Ann Boleyn -  Second wife of Henry VIII and Elizabeth's mother
Lord Burleigh -  Originally called Sir William Cecil, he was Elizabeth's chief Secretary of State until 1571, when she named him Lord Burleigh and replaced him with the more ruthless (albeit loyal) Francis Walsingham.
Francis Drake -  Sir Francis Drake was an English-backed pirate and later admiral who terrorized Spanish treasure galleons, circumnavigated the globe (1577–1580) and led the English fleet in crucial battles against the Spanish Armada (1588).
Edward VI -  Elizabeth's younger half-brother, he briefly ruled England from 1547 to 1553.
Earl of Essex -  Robert Devereaux (or Devereux), Earl of Essex, was one of Leicester's stepsons and became Elizabeth's favored companion, or favorite, towards the end of her life until a botched military intervention in Ireland destroyed his reputation. Essex was put to death in 1601 after leading an attempted rebellion.
Feria -  A Spanish ambassador to Elizabeth's court
Gregory XIII -  Serving as pope from 1572 to 1585, Gregory urged the adoption of the calendar named in his honor (the Gregorian).
Hapsburg -  Powerful European Royal family, which exercised control in Spain, Austria, the Netherlands, and the Holy Roman Empire during Elizabeth reign. The Spanish king Philip II was a Hapsburg.
Christopher Hatton -  One of Elizabeth's advisors, Hatton served as Lord Chancellor of England from 1587 to 1591.
Henry VIII -  Tudor King of England from 1509 to 1547. He began the English Reformation, had six wives over the course of his life, and was father to Elizabeth I, Edward VI and Mary I. Although possessed of the bad habit of killing off those wives who did not bear male heirs, he was beloved by the people for his strength and dynamism.
James I -  First Stuart King of England and successor to Elizabeth, James I ruled from 1603 to 1625.
Earl of Leicester -  The title given to Sir Robert Dudley by Elizabeth in 1564. Serving as Master of the Horse and also in some military leadership positions, Leicester was the Queen's close friend and probably her lover. When he died in 1588, Elizabeth shut herself in her room until Lord Burleigh bashed open the door.
Christopher Marlowe -  Poet and dramatist who preceded and competed with Shakespeare. An early pioneer of blank verse.
Mary I -  Mary Tudor, also known as "Bloody Mary" for her persecution of non- Catholics, was Elizabeth's older half-sister, and ruled England from 1553 to her death in 1558. A fervent Catholic, she was married to the future Philip II of Spain.
Mary of Guise -  Mother of Mary Queen of Scots, she served as Queen Regent in Scotland and brought French forces into Scotland to fight the Protestants there.
Mary Queen of Scots -  Also known as Mary Stuart, she was the Catholic Queen of Scotland (1542–1567) and had her eyes set on the throne of England. She was ultimately beheaded in 1587. Her son, James I, succeeded Elizabeth.
Philip II -  Hapsburg King of Spain from 1556 to 1598, this defender of Catholicism had trouble suppressing Protestants in the Netherlands; the English navy destroyed his supposedly invincible Spanish Armada in 1588.
Pius V -  Pope from 1566 to 1572, Pius tirelessly (and harshly) persecuted and encouraged the persecution of Protestants throughout Europe.
Plantagenet -  The ruling family in England from 1154 to 1485
Walter Raleigh -  This English writer and adventurer delighted Elizabeth but was put to death by her successor, James I.
Simon Renaud -  Spanish ambassador to England
William Shakespeare -  Elizabethan playwright and poet who later developed the reputation as the greatest writer of all time
Edmund Spenser -  English poet of the Elizabethan period, famous for his lengthy allegorical poem The Faerie Queene .
Stuarts -  The royal family that succeeded the Tudors. Members included James I and Mary Queen of Scots.
Tudor -  The ruling family of England from 1485 to 1603. Following the Plantagenets and preceding the Stuarts, the Tudor line included Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth the Great (Elizabeth I).
Francis Walsingham -  Elizabeth's chief secretary of state from 1573 to 1590, replacing Burleigh. Walsingham was a devout Protestant and a cunning spymaster.
William the Silent -  A protestant, William the Silent fought for an independent Netherlands during the Elizabethan era.


Act for the Preservation of the Queen's Safety -  This 1585 policy was intended to quash conspiracies against the Queen, and was enacted in response to recent plots like the Duke de Guise Plot and the earlier Ridolfi Plot.
Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity -  These two acts, ratified together, were meant to settle religious conflicts: while the Act of Supremacy made Elizabeth the "Supreme Governor" of the Church, with the authority to make absolute decisions affecting religious practices, the Act of Uniformity restored, with some amendments, the Protestant Prayer Book that Mary I had banned.
Babington Plot -  Anthony Babington led this 1586 plot to overthrow Elizabeth and put Mary Queen of Scots on the throne. Mary was thrown into the Tower of London and subsequently executed for involvement in this plot, which Walsingham cleverly detected and exposed.
Bond of Association -  A 1584 decree by which Parliament forced all English men to sign a pledge that, in the event of Elizabeth's assassination, they would hunt down the culprit.
Cadiz -  This was the site of a devastating 1587 raid on the Spanish Armada, led by Sir Francis Drake; the name now also refers to the battle itself.
Duke de Guise Plot -  A 1582 Catholic plot on Elizabeth's life
Ridolfi Plot -  A 1570 to 1571 plot led by an Italian conspirator (Roberto di Ridolfi) to overthrow Elizabeth and install Mary Queen of Scots on the throne of England. The plot involved assassinating Elizabeth and using the Spanish Army to conquer the countryside.
Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger's Rebellion -  In 1554 Sir Thomas Wyatt undertook a plot against then-queen Mary I; he intended to overthrow Mary's government and take control for himself, after marrying Elizabeth and thus legitimating his rule. When the plot was detected, Mary suspected Elizabeth of complicity and imprisoned her in the Tower of London.

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