· A person undergoing psychoanalysis.
· Greek word meaning "to occupy" or "to invest." In
Freudian psychology, it is used to describe the attachment of libido,
or other psychic energy, to a particular object or goal.
· A psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which one's desire
for something inappropriate, such as one's mother, is displaced
onto something acceptable, such as one's wife. The acceptable person shares
characteristics with, and takes the place of, the unacceptable
· English translation of Freud's term das Ich,
or "the I." One of the three components of the psyche, it is the
part of the psyche that deals with reality.
· English translation of Freud's term das Es,
or "the It." One of the three components of the psyche, it is responsible
for instinctual urges and is completely unconscious.
· Psychic energy derived from the sex drive.
· The field of medicine concerned with brain disease
and brain injuries. Distinct from neuroscience (the scientific
study of the brain) and neuropsychology (the study of psychological disorders
and impairments caused by brain dysfunction).
· A mental disorder that involves distortion, but not
outright rejection, of reality. Neuroses include anxiety disorders, "hysteria,"
"neurasthenia," and obsessive-compulsive disorders.
· Organic brain disorders are those that are caused by
detectable injuries or diseases of the brain. Organic diseases
are usually contrasted with diseases of psychological origin.
The Oedipus complex -
· A persistent set of unconscious beliefs and desires
that results, according to Freud, from the childhood repression
of the desire to sleep with one's mother and kill one's father.
· The field of biology concerned with the activities
and functions of biological systems (as opposed to anatomy, which
is concerned with the structures of biological systems).
· The philosophical position that all phenomena can be
explained by reference to physical (or "material") objects and
the laws that govern their interactions.
Pleasure principle -
· The principle obeyed by the id, which attempts to accomplish infantile
wishes such as the wish to have sex with one's mother and kill
· A psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which an unwanted desire
is attributed to others instead of the self. If you hate your father,
for example, you might project your own feelings onto him and become
convinced that your father hates you.
· A person who performs psychoanalysis. Often a medical
doctor, though not always, especially after the 1960s in Europe.
· Originally a method of treating people with neurotic
disorders invented and made popular by Sigmund Freud. Also a general method
of interpreting behavior, art, history, etc., as being rooted in
unconscious (usually sexual) desires.
· A mental disorder that involves outright rejection
or denial of reality. Psychotic conditions include schizophrenia,
very severe depression, and manic- depressive disorder.
Reaction formation -
· A psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which an unwanted desire
is converted into its opposite; e.g. a hatred of one's father is
converted into a powerful (neurotic) love for him.
Reality principle -
· The principle obeyed by the ego, which attempts to
reconcile the id's desires with reality.
· The process by which the ego prevents unwanted desires
from emerging into consciousness. According to psychoanalysis, partially-successful
repression is the cause of neuroticism.
· The use of psychic energy generated by an unwanted
or inappropriate desire, such as the desire to have sex with one's mother,
for an acceptable activity such as art, science, good works, etc.
· English translation of Freud's term "Über-Ich",
or "over-I." One of the three components of the psyche, the super-ego represents
internalized social rules. It is partly conscious, and it enforces
rules and imposes guilt.
Jewish Viennese psychoanalyst, he was one of Freud's early supporters
but split with Freud in 1911 over conflicts about the psychoanalytic
movement. Adler was angered by Freud's increasing tendency to ignore
the Viennese, and differed with Freud in his views on the importance
of the sex drive. Adler went on to become a well-known psychologist
who emphasized the importance of the themes of dominance and submission
in mental illness and in human behavior more generally. He is responsible
for the idea of the inferiority complex.
Freud's wife. Freud fell in love with Bernays in 1881 and, after
she and her family moved to Hamburg in 1883, corresponded with
her almost daily until their marriage in 1886.
Bernays' sister, she became Freud's sister-in-law when Freud and
Martha Bernays married. Minna, who never married, lived with Martha
and Freud for over thirty years. Carl Jung claimed in an interview
after Freud's death that Freud and Minna had a long-running love
affair; this claim has not been substantiated. It is known that
Freud enjoyed Minna's company, that he talked about his work with
her, (he did not talk about it with Martha), and that on at least on
occasion they vacationed together without Martha.
A princess of Greece and Denmark and a resident of
Paris, Marie Bonaparte was one of Freud's most faithful analysands.
She was instrumental in his escape from Austria in 1938.
was Freud's favorite mentor during his years at the University of
Vienna. Under Brücke's direction, Freud did research on brain anatomy
and histology. Brücke helped convince Freud to leave the field
of neuroscience for private practice in neurology in 1882.
W. C. Bullitt
American Ambassador to France, in 1938 he helped Freud and his family
obtain exit permits from Austria.
influential author of The Origin of Species
other works on the theory of evolution.
psychoanalyst and one of Freud's closest friends. A member of the
"Committee," he became president of the International Psychoanalytic
Association in 1926.
An early supporter of Freud, he remained loyal to the
psychoanalytic cause until the 1930s, just before his death, when
he split from Freud. Originally from Budapest, Ferenczi did much
to support the growth of psychoanalysis in Hungary. He was a member
of the "Committee" and president of the International Psychoanalytic
Association after World War I.
Sigmund Freud's younger brother and frequent traveling
Freud's father; a wool merchant.
of Jakob Freud's sons by his first wife, he was Freud's older half-brother.
second son of Amalie and Jakob Freud, he died within a year of his
birth in 1857.
Rosa, Dolfi, and Paula Freud
Freud's nephew. He was Freud's first childhood playmate.
nose and throat specialist from Berlin, he was Freud's best friend
and confidant during the 1890s. Fliess shared Freud's love for
controversial speculation. For instance, he had a theory that connected
the state of the nose to various sexual disorders. All of Freud's
letters to Fliess have been saved, but Fliess's responses were
all lost or destroyed by Freud himself. Freud was infatuated with
Fliess, even noting a "homosexual" component in his affection for
him, until their falling out in 1900–1901.
Daughter of Freud, Anna was his constant companion and
nurse during the years of his cancer (1923–1939), and the only
one of Freud's children to become a psychoanalyst. She is best
known for her work on defense mechanisms such as repression, projection, sublimation,
displacement, and reaction formation.
Anton von Freund
A Hungarian analysand of Freud's. Grateful for having
been cured of his neurosis, Freund donated a large sum of money
to help found the Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag,
psychoanalytic publishing house in Vienna. Unfortunately, high
levels of postwar inflation soon rendered Freund's donation nearly worthless,
forcing the Verlag
into difficult financial straits.
Carl G. Jung
Swiss psychiatrist who was one of Freud's most avid followers in
the 1900s, he broke with psychoanalysis in 1913 over conflicts
with Freud about the importance of the sex drive in human behavior. From
1910 to 1912, Jung was president of the International Psychoanalytic
Association and editor of the Association's Jahrbuch.
went on to become a well-known psychologist with strong mystical leanings.
Jung was one of the first non-Jews to become interested in psychoanalysis.
A well-respected Viennese brain anatomist and psychiatrist
for whom Freud worked in the 1880s at the Vienna General Hospital.
member of the "Committee" and one of Freud's most faithful followers
until the 1920s, Rank antagonized Freud by claiming that psychoanalytic treatment
could be completed in 4–5 months, that acting out repressed childhood
fantasies helped treatment, and that the trauma of birth–not the Oedipal
crisis–was the root cause of neurosis. Without Rank's efforts,
the psychoanalytic publishing house Verlag
would have survived its first five years (1919–1924).
lawyer who was one of Freud's early supporters and a member of the
"Committee." He later became a psychoanalyst.
physician in the 1920s and 1930s. On September 21, 1939, he fulfilled
Freud's request to inject Freud with morphine. The morphine hastened and
eased Freud's death two days later. Schur later became a psychoanalyst.
I, 1914–1918 -
The First World War was sparked by the assassination
of the Archduke Ferdinand in Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian attempt to
punish the Serbs for the assassination instigated a series of threats
and counter-threats by the European powers. Eventually almost all
of Europe became involved in a war that lasted far longer than
anyone had expected and resulted in the defeat of the Central Powers
and the destruction of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
War II, 1939–1945 -
The seeds of the Second World War were laid with Hitler's annexation
of the Sudetenland, part of the Czechoslovakian Republic, in violation
of international treaties that had been put in place after World
War I. The Western European countries appeased Hitler for months,
until in 1939 Hitler began his attempt to conquer all of Europe
and Russia. In the course of World War II, approximately six million
Jews and a number of other innocent non-combatants were killed by
the Nazi regime and the horrific Holocaust the regime created.
The involvement of the United States, Japan, China, Russia, Europe,
and parts of Africa and the Middle East made World War II the first
truly global war. It ended with the first and only use of nuclear weapons
in war–the American bombing of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima
and Nagasaki, which came months after the total defeat of the Axis
powers in Europe by the Allies.
The years between 1896, when Freud's father died, and
1899, when The Interpretation of Dreams was completed
and published, were some of the most productive years of Freud's life.
During this time, he formulated the basic techniques and theoretical
framework of psychoanalysis. Aside from his patients, Freud's primary
source of data was himself. He analyzed his dreams, his slips of
the tongue, and the childhood memories he was able to dredge up
from his unconscious. Freud called this process of interpreting
himself his "self- analysis." The self-analysis had a formative
effect on his theories and his life. We know about this period
only because of Marie Bonaparte's successful effort to save Freud's
letters to Wilhelm Fliess.
Nazis take power in Germany, 1933 -
In 1933, Hitler became chancellor of Germany and began
the campaign of persecution and nationalism that would lead to World
War II. It was in this year that the German parliament, the Reichstag,
was set on fire. In the same year, numerous books–including Freud's–were
also burnt in Germany.
Nazis invade Austria -
In March 1938, the German Nazis invaded Austria, forcing Freud
to flee to England.
Freud diagnosed with cancer -
Freud's diagnosis of mouth cancer in 1923 started the
last chapter of his life, one in which he was famous, controversial, and
well-respected, but in which he suffered a number of partings from
friends–some due to death, some to disagreement. During this time,
Freud underwent a seemingly interminable series of operations to
control his cancer. His writings became increasingly speculative
and focused on the major problems of humanity, including religion
(The Future of an Illusion, Moses and
Monotheism) and the development of civilization and culture
(Civilization and Its Discontents). Although the
last sixteen years of Freud's life were spent in near-constant discomfort–he
wore an ill-fitting prosthesis in his mouth that gave him great
difficulty in eating and speaking– his productivity was not reduced.
He continued to treat patients until the last few months of his