JFK's wife, she became one
of America's most beautiful and cultured First Ladies, and a bellwether
Cuban revolutionary, he became Cuba's dictator in 1959 and quickly
led his country into an alliance with the U.S.S.R. Castro's ascendance
brought socialist ideology troublingly close to the U.S., leading
to the U.S. invasion of Cuba in the Bay of Pigs fiasco.
Became famous as a general
during World War II, and was President of the Unites States from 1953
J. Edgar Hoover
Head of the F.B.I. during the Eisenhower and Kennedy
JFK's rival for the 1960
Democratic nomination, who subsequently became JFK's Vice-President.
Upon JFK's assassination in 1963, Johnson became President of
the Unites States, and remained in office until 1969.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
A leader in the Civil
and a powerful advocate for black
Caroline Bouvier Kennedy
JFK's daughter, born in 1957.
Known as "Teddy," he was JFK's youngest brother
and later a Senator from Massachusetts.
John F. Kennedy, Jr.
JFK's son, born in 1960.
JFK's father. An Irish
Catholic from Boston, he made a fortune investing in the stock
market and was appointed Ambassador to Great Britain, where he supported
the British policy of appeasing Hitler in the years preceding World
War II. Joseph Kennedy, Sr.'s own political ambitions were blunted,
so he transferred them to his children, particularly JFK.
JFK's older brother,
who was always understood to be the favorite of Joe Sr. Joe Jr.
was killed while still a young man, when his plane exploded during
World War II.
JFK's favorite sister.
JFK's younger brother,
he was named attorney general in the Kennedy administration.
Kennedy, Sr.'s wife, and JFK's mother.
Premier of the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, he
was JFK's rival during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
A Republican Senator from Wisconsin, he became famous
in the early 1950s for his allegations that the U.S. government
was infiltrated by Communists.
famous movie star with whom JFK had an affair.
A Republican congressman who
became Eisenhower's Vice-President, and JFK's adversary in the
1960 presidential election.
Lee Harvey Oswald
An unstable ex-Marine charged with assassinating
JFK in November 1963.
JFK's adviser and principal speechwriter. He did
the bulk of the writing for Profiles in Courage
the 1956 book that won JFK the Pulitzer Prize.
The failed Democratic candidate for president in 1952
and 1956. Under Kennedy, he was appointed ambassador to the United
A Democrat, and the President
of the United States from 1945 to 1953, while JFK was serving
in the House of Representatives.
Addison's Disease -
· An often fatal condition that involves the impairment
of the adrenal glands and the weakening of the immune system.
JFK suffered from Addison's Disease throughout his political career, a
fact that was kept secret from the general public.
· The capital of Germany. It was divided into two zones
during the Cold War–one affiliated with the West, and one Communist-ruled.
· The prestigious Connecticut boarding school where
JFK attended high school.
· The ideology of the Soviet Union, Communism predicted
the overthrow of capitalism, the abolition of private property,
and rule by the working class. U.S. fears about the spread of
Communism drove the Cold War with the Soviet Union.
· The prestigious New England university attended by
JFK, as well as by his father and Joe Jr.
Peace Corps -
· A service organization founded by JFK in 1960. It
sent American volunteers overseas to work in less-developed countries.
Profiles in Courage -
· A book supposedly written by JFK while he was a senator, depicting
various heroic political figures in U.S. history. Despite the
fact that the book was largely written by Theodore Sorensen, JFK
received a Pulitzer Prize for it in 1957.
· The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics–the Russian-dominated state
founded in 1918, and governed by the Communist Party. After World
War II, the Soviet Union and the U.S. became rivals for global
dominance, in a struggle termed the Cold War, since it never erupted
in direct, or "hot," battles.
· A former French colony in Southeast Asia that was
threatened by the prospect of a Communist takeover. During JFK's
presidency, the U.S. escalated its military involvement in the region.
Why England Slept -
· The name given to JFK's senior thesis when it was
published in the early 1940s. The book provided an analysis of
English foreign policy leading up to World War II.
Bay of Pigs -
The ill-fated attempt, in April of 1961, to overthrow
Fidel Castro by means of an invasion of Cuban exiles. The invasion force
was cut to pieces at the bay that gave the fiasco its name.
Cold War -
The struggle, commencing with the end of World War II, between
the Soviet Union and the United States for world supremacy. It
reached its point of highest tension in 1962 during the Cuban
Cuban Missile Crisis -
The two-week period of crisis in October 1962, which
began with the Soviet Union's decision to place nuclear weapons
in Cuba, just off the coast of the United States. During these
two weeks, international tensions threatened to catapult the world into
nuclear war, but JFK and Nikita Khrushchev were able to resolve
the crisis peacefully.
World War II
The conflict (1939-45) that pitted Nazi Germany and
Japan against Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States.
It ended with the Nazis' defeat, and the emergence of the U.S.S.R.
and the U.S. as the world's two "superpowers." See also the SparkNote