Clark, Ronald W. Lenin: A Biography. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.
Conquest, Robert. Reflections on a Ravaged Century. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.
Palmer, R.R., and Colton, Joel. A History of the Modern World. New York: Knopf, 1984.
Possony, Stefan. Lenin: The Compulsive Revolutionary. Chicago: Regnery, 1964.
Volkogonov, Dmitri. Lenin. New York: The Free Press, 1994.
Readers' Notes allow users to add their own analysis and insights to our SparkNotes—and to discuss those ideas with one another. Have a novel take or think we left something out? Add a Readers' Note!