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Important People and Terms

Bertoldo di Giovanni -  (c.1420–1491) The custodian and curator of Lorenzo de' Medici's art collection, as well as de' Medici's close friend; Michelangelo's sculpture teacher.
Donato Bramante  -  (1444–1514) The most renowned and accomplished architect of the High Renaissance before Michelangelo, famous for the Tempietto and the first designs for St. Peter's.
Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni  -  (1444–1530) Michelangelo's father, whom he supported for much of his later life.
Michelangelo Buonarroti  -  (1475–1564) the pre-eminent artist of the High Renaissance and the subject of this SparkNote.
chiaroscuro  -  A painting technique invented by Leonardo da Vinci which employs degrees of light and dark shades juxtaposed to create the effect of three-dimensional modeling.
Clement VII  -  One of the Medici Popes who Michelangelo grew up with; the reigning Pope during the Sack of Rome in 1527.
Vittoria Colonna -  (1490–1547) The marquess of Pescara; Michelangelo's close friend and the subject of many of his "love" poems.
Ascanio Condivi  -  (c.1525-c.1574) A minor student of Michelangelo's and the author of the biography Life of Michelangelo in 1553.
Council of Trent -  The Catholic Church's committee meetings to discuss and organize the Counter- Reformation; first convened in 1545, the Council decided to prohibit the use of nudes in religious art in 1563.
Counter-Reformation -  The Catholic Church's attempt to reform in the wake of the Reformation and the rising popularity of Protestantism.
Leonardo da Vinci  -  (1452–1519) The oldest member and father figure of the High Renaissance; a revolutionary thinker, scientist, inventor, and artist.
Donatello  -  (1386–1466) Important mid-Renaissance sculptor; teacher of Bertoldo, who later taught Michelangelo.
Marsilio Ficino -  A member of the court of Lorenzo de'Medici; the principal philosopher and proponent of Neoplatonism.
Domenico and David Ghirlandaio  -  (1449–1494) Two popular Florentine painters in whose studio Michelangelo briefly served as an apprentice.
High Renaissance -  The period from about 1495 to 1527; principally defined by the refined and extended brand of Renaissance humanist art practiced by Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael, Giorgione, and Titian.
humanism  -  A Renaissance philosophical stance that held that the Classical age of Greece and Rome epitomized the highest standards of human cultural excellence and perfection; also emphasized the independence and sovereignty of the individual.
Julius II -  The Pope who commissioned Michelangelo for his tomb and the Sistine Ceiling, among other projects.
Leo X -  Another friend from Michelangelo's childhood; nephew of Lorenzo de' Medici.
Martin Luther -  The leader of the Protestant Reformation; sparked an uproar against the Catholic Church after posting his "Theses" in Wittenburg in 1517.
Medici  -  The most affluent and influential family in Florence; great Renaissance patrons of the arts, they supported Michelangelo as rulers of Florence and as Popes
Lorenzo de' Medici  -  The philosophy that reconciled Classicism and Christianity during the Renaissance; most actively argued by Marsilio Ficino.
Paul III -  The Pope who commissioned the Last Judgment and the Campidoglio, among other projects.
pieta  -  A sculpture of the dead Christ being contemplated, by the Virgin Mary or other Biblical figures, after being taken down from the cross.
Pius IV -  The reigning Pope when Michelangelo died in 1564 and the Pope who ordered the repainting of the nudes in the Last Judgment.
Raphael  -  (1483–1520) One of the foremost Italian painters of the High Renaissance
Reformation -  The religious movement that split the Catholic Church and led to the creation of Protestantism; started by Martin Luther in 1517 in Wittenburg, Germany, the Reformation quickly split Europe religiously and politically.
Renaissance  -  A period that began in Italy and Northern Europe around 1400, marked by a dramatic resurgence of interest in the arts and sciences and triggered by a renewed emphasis on the ideas and art of Classical Greece and Rome.
Giuliano da Sangallo -  (c.1443–1516) Architect who worked on the design and construction of St. Peter's after Bramante and before Michelangelo.
Girolamo Savonarola  -  Dominican friar who led a puritanical revolt against Neoplatonism and was burned at the stake for heresy; Michelangelo met him at the palace of Lorenzo de'Medici
sfumato -  A painting technique developed by Leonardo that involves a soft blending of colors to create the atmospheric effect of a mist or haze.
Titian -  (1488/or '90–1576) Venetian High Renaissance painter and admirer of the Last Judgment.
Giorgio Vasari  -  (1511–1574) Painter and author of Lives of the Artists, published in 1550, which included a biography of Michelangelo.

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The Council of Trent and Naked Images

by matthew9267483, November 13, 2013

I think the time when the Council of Trent condemned naked pictures was in Session XXV on December 4,1563. The public domain translation of the Council of Trent by Tanner says, "Furthermore, in the invocation of the saints, the veneration of relics, and the sacred use of images .... all lasciviousness avoided, so that images shall not be painted and adorned with a seductive charm"


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