· An artistic technique that emphasizes conceptual representation and
discards the attempt to represent real objects.
· The opportunity to work as an art supervisor in Amarillo,
Texas, in 1912–1914 was important in O’Keeffe’s artistic development.
She developed a love for the landscape of southwestern United States,
which was her primary inspiration throughout her career. While
teaching, she also instilled that love in her students, opening
their eyes to the beauty in their environment.
Art Institute of Chicago -
· This renowned art museum also houses a prestigious
art school. While attending the school in 1905–1906, Georgia found
that its conservative focus on realism and mastering the techniques
of European artists did not suit her interests. Nonetheless, she excelled
in the classroom and was ranked well.
Art Students League -
· Founded in 1875, this school was innovative in its
educational approach in contrast to other art schools at the time
of its founding. Besides Georgia O’Keeffe, the League has had many other
famous students, such as Norman Rockwell and Jackson Pollock.
Black Place -
· Georgia named an area north of Ghost Ranch the "Black
Place" because of the overwhelming presence of dark hills extending vertically
into the sky. This area became the subject for many of her paintings.
Ghost Ranch -
· The ranch in New Mexico where Georgia spent many of
her summers, and eventually bought one of the ranch buildings in 1940.
Georgia liked the remoteness of the ranch and the adjacent Carson
· An artistic technique that uses image or sign to represent something
Arthur Wesley Dow
Influenced by Impressionism and Oriental art, Dow
(1857–1922) became a great artist and influential art educator
by advocating the achievement of beauty and balance in composition,
not solely the replication of nature. He also promoted arts and
crafts, stating that they are just as important as fine arts.
came to work for Georgia in 1973 and eventually became her companion,
and student. He also helped her when she aged and represented her,
to the dissatisfaction of some of her friends who viewed him as
an intruder who was taking advantage of her. Nevertheless, O’Keeffe
defended Hamilton and his relationship with her, saying that he
came when she needed him.
Author of Concerning the Spiritual in Art
was famous for experimenting with abstraction. He had a significant
role in the development of abstract art in the early 20th century.
A friend of O’Keeffe since they met at the Art Students
League in 1914, Pollitzer kept in close contact with Georgia through
the rest of her life. Her letters reveal a more intimate view
of Georgia’s life than many other sources. Pollitzer eventually
became an influential leader in the women’s rights movement.
Artist and photographer Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946)
produced many famous photographs of New York City and was an instrumental
figure in the avant-garde of early American photography. He was
active with the Camera Club of New York, edited the journal Camera
published the journal Camera Work,
established the Photo-Secession group. As the director of the 291
gallery, and later the galleries An Intimate Gallery and An American
Place, he created a meeting and exhibition space for modern artists
by introducing works by upstarts such as Picasso and Matisse at
a time when their art was rejected by mainstream art institutions.
First Solo Exhibition -
Between April 3 and May 14, 1917, Stieglitz presented
Georgia’s first solo exhibition at 291 with artwork she produced
in South Carolina and Texas. This exhibition included many of her abstractions
and subjects such as canyons.
Retrospective Art Exhibition -
In January and February of 1943, the Art Institute of
Chicago presented the first major retrospective of O’Keeffe’s work.
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