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Introduction to Cell Reproduction

Terms

Introduction to Cellular Reproduction

The Goal of Cellular Reproduction

Cell cycle  -  A repeated process in which cells copy their contents and then divide into two. Occurs in cells as a means of reproduction.
Diploid number  -  The total number of chromosomes present in a cell.
Gametes  -  Cells with the haploid number of chromosomes. Gametes are created out of germ cells. The sperm and eggs involved in sexual reproduction are gametes.
Germ cell  -  Cells that lead to the production of gametes. Produced by meiosis.
Haploid number  -  The number of unique chromosomes or homologous pairs in a cell. Half the diploid number.
Homologous pair  -  Refers to two similar chromosomes in a diploid cell. One chromosome is derived from the father gamete cell and the other from the mother gamete.
Meiosis  -  A type of cellular reproduction that results in the formation of four haploid cells from one diploid cell. Contains two cellular divisions that follow only one round of DNA replication. The type of reproduction that produces germ cells. See the SparkNote on meiosis
Mitosis  -  A type of cellular reproduction that results in the formation of two identical diploid cells from one diploid cell. Contains one cellular division following a round of DNA replication. The type of reproduction that produces somatic cells. See the SparkNote on mitosis
Sister chromatid  -  Refers to the copy of a chromosomes that results from DNA replication and is still closely linked to its original.
Somatic cell  -  Any plant or animal cell that is not a germ cell. The class of cell formed during mitosis.

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