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Glycolysis

Terms

Introduction

Stage 1: Glucose Breakdown

Adenisine Triphosphate (ATP)  -  The molecule from which cells derive energy. Comprised of an adenisine molecule bonded to three phosphates, each phosphate bond contains energy, especially the third bond. By breaking that one bond and reducing ATP to adenisine diphosphate (ADP), the cell can get the energy to carry out its various processes.
Alcohol dehydrogenase  -  The glycolytic enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reaction that converts acetaldehyde to ethanol in the alcoholic fermentation of pyruvate.
Alcoholic fermentation  -  The process that converts pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethanol that takes place in yeast under anaerobic conditions.
Aldolase  -  The glycolytic enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reaction that converts fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxyacetone phoshate (DHAP).
Glucose  -  A six-carbon molecule that is a digestive product of carbohydrates and plays a major role in the metabolism of living cells.
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase  -  The glycolytic enzyme responsible for converting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate into 1,3-bisphoglycerate with the reduction of NAD to NADH.
Hexokinase  -  The glycolytic enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reaction that transfers a phosphate group from a molecule of ATP to a 6-membered glucose ring.
Homolactic fermentation  -  The process that converts pyruvate into lactate while oxidizing NADH to NAD under anaerobic conditions.
Lactate dehydrogenase  -  The glycolytic enzyme responsible for converting pyruvate into lactate while oxidizing NADH to NAD under anaerobic conditions.
Phosphofructokinase  -  The glycolytic enzyme responsible for converting fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate by transferring a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate.
Phosphoglucose isomerase  -  The glycolytic enzyme responsible for converting glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate.
Phosphoglycerate kinase  -  The glycolytic enzyme responsible for converting 1,3-bisphoglycerate into 3- phosphoglycerate by transferring a phosphate group from 1,3-bisphoglycerate to an ADP molecule to yield ATP.
Phosphoglycerate mutase  -  The glycolytic enzyme responsible for rearranging 3-phosphoglycerate into 2- phosphoglycerate.
Phosphorylation  -  A reaction that transfers a phosphate group from one molecule to another.
Pyruvate  -  The end product of glycolysis.
Pyruvate decarboxylase  -  The glycolytic enzyme responsible for converting pyruvate into acetaldehyde under anaerobic conditions during alcoholic fermentation.
Triosphosphate isomerase  -  The glycolytic enzyme responsible for converting dihydroxyacetone adenine phosphate into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate so that it can continue in the glycolytic pathway.

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