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Acetyl Coenzyme A  -  A small molecule that carries acetyl functional groups in cells. Composed of an acetyl group attached to a coenzyme A molecule. The starting product of the citric acid cycle.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)  -  The molecule from which cells derive energy. Comprised of an adenosine molecule bonded to three phosphates, each phosphate bond contains energy, especially the third bond. By breaking that one bond and reducing ATP to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), the cell can get the energy to carry out its various processes.
Aerobic respiration  -  A metabolic process involving oxygen in the breakdown of glucose.
Anabolic  -  Term describing enzyme-catalyzed reactions in a cell that involves the synthesis of complex molecules out of simpler subunits and which uses energy.
Anaerobic respiration  -  A metabolic process that does not involve oxygen in the breakdown of glucose.
Carbohydrate  -  A molecular compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Subunits are sugars.
Catabolic  -  Term describing enzyme-catalyzed reactions in a cell that involve the degradation of molecules into more simple subunits with the release of energy.
Chemotroph  -  An organism that derives its energy from the ingestion of food molecules.
Citric acid cycle  -  Also known as the Krebs Cycle; a metabolic pathway found in aerobic organisms that oxidizes acetyl coA groups to carbon dioxide and water.
Coenzyme  -  A molecule that participates in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction and functions to transfer atoms or electrons between itself and various molecules.
Elimination reaction  -  A reaction that involves the ejection of a specific group from a molecule, often resulting in the formation of a carbon-carbon double bond.
Glycolysis  -  A metabolic pathway occurring in the cell *cytosol that during a series of reactions converts glucose to pyruvate and synthesizes ATP**.
Isomerization  -  A reaction that does not change the atomic make-up of a molecule, but rather changes its geometric conformation, yielding a slightly different molecule.
Lipid  -  An organic molecule that is insoluble in water. A main component of cell membranes.
Metabolism  -  All the reactions occurring in an organism that participate in the acquisition or conversion of energy for use in the organism.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide  -  A coenzyme that participates in oxidation and reduction reactions. An important electron carrier in oxidative phosphorylation.
Oxidation  -  A reaction that involves the overall loss of electrons from a specific molecule or atom. Can occur with the addition of an oxygen or by the removal of a hydrogen.
Oxidative phosphorylation  -  A process occurring in the mitochondria that results in the formation of ATP from the flow of electrons to oxygen.
Photosynthesis  -  A process in which plants convert sunlight into energy sources that can be used inside the cell to sustain life.
Phototroph  -  Organisms that obtain energy from sun light through photosynthesis.
Protein  -  An essential molecule found in all cells. Composed of amino acid subunits.
Reduction  -  A reaction that results in the overall gain of electrons to a specific molecule or atom. Can occur with the addition of a hydrogen atom or by the removal of an oxygen atom.
Respiration  -  A process that occurs in cells in which cells breakdown food molecules to yield ATP. Can be either aerobic or anaerobic.