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Oxidative Phosphorylation and Electron Transport

Terms

Introduction

Mitochondria

Adenisine Triphosphate (ATP)  -  The molecule from which cells derive energy. Comprised of an adenisine molecule bonded to three phosphates. Each phosphate bond contains energy, especially the third bond. By breaking that one bond and reducing ATP to adenisine diphosphate (ADP), the cell can get the energy to carry out its various processes.
Electron transport chain  -  Term used to describe the flow of electrons generated by the oxidation of NADH and FADH2. Responsible for establishing an electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane that powers the synthesis of ATP in oxidative phosphorylation.
Mitochondria  -  An organelle within the cell. Most of the ATP needed for daily functioning is produced within its bounds during the citric acid cycle, the electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation. .
Oxidation  -  A reaction that involves the overall loss of electrons from a specific molecule or atom. Can occur with the addition of an oxygen or by the removal of a hydrogen.
Oxidative phosphorylation  -  A process occurring in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria that results in the formation of ATP from the flow of electrons to oxygen.
Proton translocating ATP synthase  -  The oxidative phosphorylation enzyme responsible for ATP synthesis; harnesses the energy of electromechanical gradient created by the electron transport chain.
Reduction  -  A reaction that results in the overall gain of electrons to a specific molecule or atom. Can occur with the addition of a hydrogen atom or by the removal of an oxygen atom.

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