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Common Descent  -  The belief that all present life evolved from a few common ancestors.
Gradualism  -  The Darwinian belief that evolution takes place in innumerable small steps. Led Darwin to believe that the world was much older than previously thought.
Darwinism  -  The theory of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin. It holds that species change over time and that this change comes about through the mechanism of natural selection.
Natural Selection  -  The theory holding that competition exists within species, determining which species live to have offspring, and pass their traits on to those offspring.
Population Speciation  -  The Darwinian belief that there are random phenotypic variations within species that confer advantages selected for by natural selection; these variations can be passed from parent to offspring.