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Alleles  -  Variations of a given gene.
allelic frequencies  -  The frequency with which a particular allele appears among the possible alleles in a population.
Fitness  -  The probability that an individual will contribute its genes to the next generation.
Genetic drift  -  Random changes in allelic frequencies due to chance rather than selection.
Hardy-Weinberg equation  -  An equation used to find the allele frequencies in a population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. For a two allele system, the Hardy-Weinberg equation would be (p + q)2 = 1 or p 2 +2pq + q 2 = 1 .
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium  -  A state in which phenotypic and allelic frequencies remain constant from generation to generation in sexually reproducing populations.
Natural Selection  -  The theory holding that competition exists within species, determining which species live to have offspring and pass their traits on to those offspring.
Phenotype  -  The traits or characteristics an individual displays.