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Contents

Monera

Terms

Introduction

Eubacteria

Aerobes  -  Organisms that require oxygen to carry out respiration, as opposed to anaerobes.
Anaerobes  -  Organisms that do not require oxygen to carry out respiration, as opposed to aerobes. Anaerobes may be facultative anaerobes or obligate anaerobes.
Autotrophs  -  Organisms thatdo not require a specified exogenous factor for normal metabolism
Binary fission  -  Asexual reproduction found in prokaryotes in which a cell divides into two equal daughter cells by a non-mitotic process.
Chemoautotrophs  -  Organisms who derive their energy through the synthesis of organic materials from inorganic molecules.
Eukaryotes  -  Organisms whose cell interiors are characterized by separation into organelles and whose genetic material is enclosed by a nuclear membrane. Compare with prokaryotes.
Eukaryote flagella  -  The type of flagellum found in prokaryotes. These flagella are covered by the cell membrane and move in a back and forth motion.
Facultative anaerobes  -  Organisms that do not require oxygen to carry out respiration, but are not harmed by the presence of oxygen and may have the ability to respire aerobically in its presence. Compare with obligate anaerobes.
Flagella  -  A term used to refer to two different structures in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, both used in cell movement. Flagella in both groups are long, hair-like structures, but their internal structure and evolutionary history are completely different.
Flagellin  -  Protein subunits that make up prokaryotic flagella.
Gram Staining  -  A process by which components of bacterial cell walls are bound to Gram's stain. Some bacteria lack the cell wall component that will bind Gram's stain and are classified as Gram-negative.
Heterotrophic  -  Requiring organic materials from the environment due to an inability to produce them internally. As opposed to autotrophic.
Nucleoids  -  The clear regions in which the genetic material of prokaryotes is located. Nucleoids are not membrane bound.
Obligate anaerobes  -  Organisms that do not require oxygen for respiration and are poisoned in the presence of oxygen. Compare with facultative anaerobes.
Parasites  -  A party in symbiosis that benefits at the expense of the other party.
Peptidoglycan  -  The component of cell walls bound by gram's stain.
Photoautotroph  -  An organism that gains energy by synthesizing organic compound using light energy.
Plasmids  -  Circular DNA molecules found in prokaryotes.
Prokaryotes  -  Organisms whose cells lack internal organization into organelles and whose genetic material is not contained within a membrane-bound nucleus.
Prokaryote flagella  -  The type of flagellum found in prokaryotes. These flagella are not covered by the cell membrane and move in a spiral motion.
Pseudopeptidoglycan  -  A substance found in the cell walls of some archaebacteria that is similar to peptidoglycan.
Ribosomes  -  Cellular machinery for protein synthesis.
Tubulin  -  Protein that makes up the microtubules of eukaryotic flagella.
Saprophytes  -  Heterotrophic organisms that live on dead organic material.

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