Refers to the ideal configuration of a promoter region. The region includes
three trademarks: the 35 region, the 10 region, and a 17 base pair space in
between the two regions. The degree of conformity to this consensus sequence
determines promoter strength. Only prokaryotes have canonical promoter regions.
The material of which chromosomes are made. Contains DNA, histones, and
nonhistone proteins. Chromatin is found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
A structure formed when a single strand of DNA or RNA folds back on itself via
regions of complementary base pairing. Can be used as a termination signal for
A complex that is a mixture of two distinct subunits.
An RNA molecule that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein.
A bead-like subunit of eukaryotic chromosomes. Composed of short lengths of DNA
wrapped around histone proteins. A subunit of chromatin.
A specified region on a DNA chain that signals the initiation of DNA
One class of stop signal for DNA transcription; dependent upon a protein called
a "rho factor" that is thought to pull the RNA polymerase off the DNA
One class of stop signal for DNA transcription. Stretch of DNA that contains a
sequence that is repeated in the reverse direction and is followed by a short
string of adenines. When copied into RNA, it forms a hairpin loop that acts
as a signal to stop transcription.
The building block for RNA synthesis. Contains a five-membered, oxygen-
containing ring that has three phosphate groups attached to its 5' carbon and
either an adenine, cytosine, guanine, or uracil base group attached to its 1'
An RNA molecule that forms a part of the structure of a ribosome and
participates in protein synthesis.
The enzyme responsible for catalyzing the addition of ribonuclotide substrates
to a growing RNA chain during DNA transcription.
A specific sequence on a DNA strand, located near a promoter region, which is
recognized by RNA polymerase as the site for the addition of the first
Term applied to any protein required to initiate or regulate eukaryotic DNA
An RNA molecule used in protein synthesis as
a link helping to convert messenger RNA into amino
A promoter element characteristic of certain strong promoter regions. Consists
of an AT rich region.