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Genetic Code

Terms

Introduction to the Genetic Code

The Genetic Code

Amino Acid  -  The building block of proteins.
Codon  -  A three-nucleotide sequence in an mRNA sequence. Used to specify an amino acid.
Degenerate  -  Term used to describe the genetic code. Means that more than one codon can specify for a single amino acid.
Extragenic supression  -  A type of mutation that occurs outside of the genetic code, but has an effect on the amino acid sequence that is translated from the genetic code.
Frameshift mutation  -  One class of genetic code mutation that results from the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide to an mRNA sequence. Results in a new reading frame.
Genetic Code  -  The series of codons that make up an organism's DNA.
Intragenic suppression  -  A type of mutation that occurs within the genetic code to suppress a different mutation.
Missense mutation  -  One class of genetic code mutation that results from the substitution of one base group for another in a codon. Results in the change of the amino acid for which the codon specifies.
Mutation  -  An error in the genetic code caused most often by a the incorrect substitution, insertion, or deletion of a nucleotide.
Nonsense mutation  -  One class of genetic code mutation that results from the substitution of one base group for another in a codon. Results in a stop codon, a codon that can no longer be recognized by tRNA molecules.
Reading frame  -  One of three possible ways of grouping an mRNA sequence by threes to yield an amino acid sequence.
Silent Mutation  -  A substitution base mutation that changes a codon, but because of degeneracy does not change the amino acid that codon specifies.
Stop codon  -  A codon that is not recognized by a tRNA molecule. One of three codons: UAA, UAG, or UGA. Signals the termination of DNA translation.
Suppressor mutation  -  A type of genetic code mutation that alters the result of a different mutation. Can be either extragenic or intragenic.
Synonyms  -  Codons that code for the same amino acid.
True reversion  -  One type of suppression mutation that leads to the restoration of the natural genetic code sequence.

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