Alternation of Generations
The fluctuation between the diploid (sporophyte) and haploid
life stages that occurs in plants.
A vascular flowering plant in which seeds are enclosed inside of protective
The female sex organ of terrestrial plants; where egg cells are produced.
A lower terrestrial plant (often a moss or liverwort) that lacks a vascular
system and is dependent
on environmental moisture for reproductive and nutritive functions.
Roughly spherical underground bud containing additional buds that can develop
asexually into new plants. A form of vegetative propagation.
The process, occurring in most angiosperms, by which the male gametes of
one plant (carried by pollen grains) fertilize the eggs of another.
Having two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
The mechanism of angiosperm fertilization that involves the joining of haploid
gametes to create
a diploid zygote, and the simultaneous joining of a second sperm cell with a
nucleus to create a triploid nucleus (which becomes endosperm).
A substance, formed from a triploid nucleus in angiosperm reproduction,
that nourishes a developing embryo within a seed.
A form of vegetative propagation in which a severed plant part develops into
a whole new plant.
The diploid product formed by the joining of the two polar nuclei in the
A haploid sex cell (either an egg or sperm cell); male and female gametes
join during fertilization to create a diploid zygote.
A haploid plant or plant structure that produces haploid gametes through
An artificial form of vegetative propagation in which parts of two young
plants are joined together, first by artificial means and then by tissue
A vascular non-flowering plant (commonly known as a conifer) in which seeds
are not protected by an ovary.
Having only one set of chromosomes.
The reproductive phenomenon, characteristic of gymnosperms and
angiosperms, whereby spores of two distinct sexes are produced; these
spores develop into sex-specific gametophytes.
Female spore; gives rise to a female gametophyte.
Cell division that results in cells with half the chromosomes of the parent
Male spore; gives rise to a male gametophyte.
In plants, the protective structure that holds the ovules and surrounds the
angiosperm seed; after fertilization, develops into a fruit.
Structure that contains the female gametophyte and gametes; after
fertilization, develops into a seed.
The female reproductive organ of the flower, composed of a stigma,
style, and ovary; sometimes called
Two nuclei, contained within the same cell, that are created from the
mitotic division of the megaspore during
angiosperm reproduction; unite in the ovule to form a fusion nucleus,
which gives rise to endosperm when fertilized.
The male gametophyte of gymnosperms and angiosperms.
The outgrowth of a pollen grain that creates a path through the female sex
organ in order to penetrate to the egg cells.
Slender horizontal stem that can give rise, via specialized nodes, to new
Very small structure on the surface of a tuber that contains a bud from
which a new plant can arise.
Twig or bud that is grafted onto a plant with roots (called the stock)
and develops into a new shoot system.
The process by which the male gametes of a plant fertilize the eggs of the
The part of a plant where spores are produced.
Haploid cell from which a gametophyte is produced.
A diploid plant or plant structure that produces haploid spores through
The top part of the pistil, where pollen grains are received.
Plant with a root system onto which a twig or bud from another plant (called a
scion) is grafted.
A terrestrial plant with a vascular system.
Having three sets of chromosomes.
Fleshy underground storage structure, composed of an enlarged portion of the
stem, that has on its surface buds capable of producing new plants.
Mechanism of internal water and nutrient transport, characteristic of
tracheophytes; made up of the vascular tissues
A conductive component (either xylem or
phloem) of the system that transports food
and nutrients throughout the plant body.
A form of asexual reproduction in which plants produce genetically identical
offshoots (clones) of themselves, which then develop into independent plants.
The diploid product of fertilization that develops into an embryo.