Above-ground roots (often found on vines) that cling to substrates other than
The flower whorl that contains the stamens, the male reproductive organs
of the flower.
Pollen-producing structure at the top of the stamen, the male reproductive
organ of flowers.
The outermost flower whorl, containing the sepals.
One of the modified leaves of the flower that encloses the ovules; this term
refers to the entire female reproductive organ, otherwise known as the
A green pigment, necessary for photosynthesis, that is found in the
chloroplasts of plants.
The flower whorl that contains the petals.
An embryonic leaf characteristic of
monocot embryos have one, and dicot embryos have two.
An flowering plant (angiosperm) that possesses two cotyledons during
Component of the embryo made up of the epicotyl (future shoot) and
hypocotyl (future root).
A substance, formed from a triploid nucleus in angiosperm reproduction, that
developing embryo within a seed.
The portion of the embryonic axis above the attachment of the cotyledons;
develops into the
Refers to the cells which lie on the outer surface of an organism.
A system of many small, branching roots (none of which predominates) that spread
out in the top
few centimeters of soil; characteristic of monocots.
The stalk of the stamen, the male reproductive organ of the flower.
One of the two epidermal cells that surround the stoma of the leaf and
exchange by opening and closing the stoma.
The innermost flower whorl, containing the pistil(s), the female reproductive
organ(s) of the
Wood made up of xylem that is no longer functioning in nutrient transport.
A plant, usually an annual, with a soft, non-woody stem.
The portion of the embryonic axis below the point of attachment of the
cotyledons; develops into
The internal tissue of a leaf; specialized for photosynthesis.
An flowering plant (angiosperm) that possesses one cotyledon during embryonic
In plants, the protective structure that holds the ovules and surrounds the
composed of carpels and found at the base of the pistil.
Structure that contains the female
gametes; after fertilization, develops into
A layer of the mesophyll. The palisade layer is made up
chloroplasts arranged in columns and located just
below the epidermis of plant cells. In most plants, the palisade layer exists
only on the top of the life, where the leaf receives sunlight. In some plants,
in which leaves hang down and both sides of the leaves receive sunlight, the
palisade layer is on both sides of the leaf.
The most common type of plant cell. Parenchyma are not particularly
specialized, are usually round, and can be found in leaves, stems, and roots.
Parenchyma cells are alive at maturity.
Nonreproductive portion of a flower comprised of the calyx and corolla.
Modified leaf, usually brightly colored, that attracts insects and other pollen-
carrying animals to
Vascular tissue composed of conductile cells that are living at maturity;
products of photosynthesis throughout the plant body.
The process by which plants and other
autotrophic organisms convert
into organic materials.
The female reproductive organ of the flower, composed of a stigma,
ovary; sometimes called the carpel.
Plant tissue located at the center of the stem; functions partly in nutrient
The male gametophyte of gymnosperms and
Horizontal passageways in the stems of woody dicots that lead from the
phloem to the
pith at the center of the stem.
The part of a plant beneath the soil; responsible for collecting water and
minerals from the soil,
storing nutrients, and securing the plant to the ground.
Wood made up of xylem tissue that is active in the vascular system.
Green, leaf-like structure that encloses and protects the unopened flower bud.
A layer of the mesophyll. The spongy layer consists of
chloroplasts and parenchyma cells, and
relatively large intercellular spaces. It is far less ordered than the
palisade layer, and the intercellular spaces are important in gas exchange
The male reproductive organ of the flower, comprised of an anther and
The top part of the pistil, where pollen grains are received.
A very small epidermal pore, surrounded by two guard cells, through which
gases diffuse in
and out of a leaf.
The shaft of the pistil that leads from the stigma down into the ovary.
A single dominant root (often with several smaller secondary roots branching off
of it) that
extends deep into the soil; characteristic of dicots.
The process by which a plant loses water to its environment through evaporation.
Having three sets of chromosomes.
Vascular passageways comprised of xylem and phloem "bundled" together.
Tissue that produces new vascular cells; lies between the xylem and phloem in
Mechanism of internal water and nutrient transport, made up of the vascular
tissues xylem and
phloem, that is characteristic of
A conductile component (either xylem or phloem) of the system that transports
nutrients throughout the plant body.
One of the four sets of modified leaves (calyx, corolla, androecium, or
perform various functions on the flower.
A plant, usually a perennial, with a woody stem; most trees are woody dicots.
Vascular tissue composed of conductile cells that are dead at maturity;
transports water and
dissolved minerals upwards from the roots to the shoot.
The diploid product of fertilization that
develops into an